Yocto-light : user's guide

Yocto-Light : User's guide

1. Introduction
1.1 Safety Information
2. Presentation
2.1 Common elements
2.2 Specific elements
2.3 Optional accessories
3. Version 1, 2, & 3: some differences
3.1 Value measured in lux
3.2 Yocto-Light V1
3.3 Yocto-Light V2
3.4 Yocto-Light V3
4. First steps
4.1 Prerequisites
4.2 Testing USB connectivity
4.3 Localization
4.4 Test of the module
4.5 Configuration
5. Assembly and connections
5.1 Fixing
5.2 Moving the sensor away
5.3 USB power distribution
6. Programming, general concepts
6.1 Programming paradigm
6.2 The Yocto-Light module
6.3 Module control interface
6.4 LightSensor function interface
6.5 DataLogger function interface
6.6 What interface: Native, DLL or Service ?
6.7 Programming, where to start?
7. Using the Yocto-Light in command line
7.1 Installing
7.2 Use: general description
7.3 Control of the LightSensor function
7.4 Control of the module part
7.5 Limitations
8. Using Yocto-Light with JavaScript / EcmaScript
8.1 Blocking I/O versus Asynchronous I/O in JavaScript
8.2 Using Yoctopuce library for JavaScript / EcmaScript 2017
8.3 Control of the LightSensor function
8.4 Control of the module part
8.5 Error handling
9. Using Yocto-Light with PHP
9.1 Getting ready
9.2 Control of the LightSensor function
9.3 Control of the module part
9.4 HTTP callback API and NAT filters
9.5 Error handling
10. Using Yocto-Light with C++
10.1 Control of the LightSensor function
10.2 Control of the module part
10.3 Error handling
10.4 Integration variants for the C++ Yoctopuce library
11. Using Yocto-Light with Objective-C
11.1 Control of the LightSensor function
11.2 Control of the module part
11.3 Error handling
12. Using Yocto-Light with Visual Basic .NET
12.1 Installation
12.2 Using the Yoctopuce API in a Visual Basic project
12.3 Control of the LightSensor function
12.4 Control of the module part
12.5 Error handling
13. Using Yocto-Light with C#
13.1 Installation
13.2 Using the Yoctopuce API in a Visual C# project
13.3 Control of the LightSensor function
13.4 Control of the module part
13.5 Error handling
14. Using Yocto-Light with Delphi
14.1 Preparation
14.2 Control of the LightSensor function
14.3 Control of the module part
14.4 Error handling
15. Using the Yocto-Light with Python
15.1 Source files
15.2 Dynamic library
15.3 Control of the LightSensor function
15.4 Control of the module part
15.5 Error handling
16. Using the Yocto-Light with Java
16.1 Getting ready
16.2 Control of the LightSensor function
16.3 Control of the module part
16.4 Error handling
17. Using the Yocto-Light with Android
17.1 Native access and VirtualHub
17.2 Getting ready
17.3 Compatibility
17.4 Activating the USB port under Android
17.5 Control of the LightSensor function
17.6 Control of the module part
17.7 Error handling
18. Advanced programming
18.1 Event programming
18.2 The data logger
18.3 Sensor calibration
19. Firmware Update
19.1 The VirtualHub or the YoctoHub
19.2 The command line library
19.3 The Android application Yocto-Firmware
19.4 Updating the firmware with the programming library
19.5 The "update" mode
20. Using with unsupported languages
20.1 Command line
20.2 VirtualHub and HTTP GET
20.3 Using dynamic libraries
20.4 Porting the high level library
21. High-level API Reference
21.1 General functions
21.2 Module control interface
21.3 LightSensor function interface
21.4 DataLogger function interface
21.5 Recorded data sequence
21.6 Measured value
22. Troubleshooting
22.1 Where to start?
22.2 Linux and USB
22.3 ARM Platforms: HF and EL
22.4 Powered module but invisible for the OS
22.5 Another process named xxx is already using yAPI
22.6 Disconnections, erratic behavior
22.7 Damaged device
23. Characteristics
24. Index

1. Introduction

The Yocto-Light module is a 35.5x20mm module which allows you to measure by USB the ambient light from 3 to 65000 lux1.


The Yocto-Light module

The Yocto-Light is intended to be used as laboratory equipment, or as industrial process-control equipment, but also for similar applications in domestic and commercial environments 2.

Yoctopuce thanks you for buying this Yocto-Light and sincerely hopes that you will be satisfied with it. The Yoctopuce engineers have put a large amount of effort to ensure that your Yocto-Light is easy to install anywhere and easy to drive from a maximum of programming languages. If you are nevertheless disappointed with this module, do not hesitate to contact Yoctopuce support3.

1.1. Safety Information

Caution: The Yocto-Light is not certified for use in hazardous locations, explosive environments, or life-threatening applications.
 
Caution: The Yocto-Light is not certified for use in medical environments or life-support applications.


2. Presentation


1:Micro-B USB socket 3:Yocto-led
2:Yocto-button 4:Sensor

2.1. Common elements

All Yocto-modules share a number of common functionalities.

USB connector

Yoctopuce modules all come with a micro-B USB socket. The corresponding cables are not the most common, but the sockets are the smallest available.

Warning: the USB connector is simply soldered in surface and can be pulled out if the USB plug acts as a lever. In this case, if the tracks stayed in position, the connector can be soldered back with a good iron and using flux to avoid bridges. Alternatively, you can solder a USB cable directly in the 1.27mm-spaced holes near the connector.

Yocto-button

The Yocto-button has two functionalities. First, it can activate the Yocto-beacon mode (see below under Yocto-led). Second, if you plug in a Yocto-module while keeping this button pressed, you can then reprogram its firmware with a new version. Note that there is a simpler UI-based method to update the firmware, but this one works even in case of severely damaged firmware.

Yocto-led

Normally, the Yocto-led is used to indicate that the module is working smoothly. The Yocto-led then emits a low blue light which varies slowly, mimicking breathing. The Yocto-led stops breathing when the module is not communicating any more, as for instance when powered by a USB hub which is disconnected from any active computer.

When you press the Yocto-button, the Yocto-led switches to Yocto-beacon mode. It starts flashing faster with a stronger light, in order to facilitate the localization of a module when you have several identical ones. It is indeed possible to trigger off the Yocto-beacon by software, as it is possible to detect by software that a Yocto-beacon is on.

The Yocto-led has a third functionality, which is less pleasant: when the internal software which controls the module encounters a fatal error, the Yocto-led starts emitting an SOS in morse 4. If this happens, unplug and re-plug the module. If it happens again, check that the module contains the latest version of the firmware, and, if it is the case, contact Yoctopuce support5.

Current sensor

Each Yocto-module is able to measure its own current consumption on the USB bus. Current supply on a USB bus being quite critical, this functionality can be of great help. You can only view the current consumption of a module by software.

Serial number

Each Yocto-module has a unique serial number assigned to it at the factory. For Yocto-Light modules, this number starts with LIGHTMK1. The module can be software driven using this serial number. The serial number cannot be modified.

Logical name

The logical name is similar to the serial number: it is a supposedly unique character string which allows you to reference your module by software. However, in the opposite of the serial number, the logical name can be modified at will. The benefit is to enable you to build several copies of the same project without needing to modify the driving software. You only need to program the same logical name in each copy. Warning: the behavior of a project becomes unpredictable when it contains several modules with the same logical name and when the driving software tries to access one of these modules through its logical name. When leaving the factory, modules do not have an assigned logical name. It is yours to define.

2.2. Specific elements

The sensor

This sensor is a SFH 5712 produced by OSRAM. It allows you to measure the ambient light in a range from 3 to 65000 lux. No particular precaution is needed when using it.

2.3. Optional accessories

The accessories below are not necessary to use the Yocto-Light module but might be useful depending on your project. These are mostly common products that you can buy from your favorite hacking store. To save you the tedious job of looking for them, most of them are also available on the Yoctopuce shop.

Screws and spacers

In order to mount the Yocto-Light module, you can put small screws in the 2.5mm assembly holes, with a screw head no larger than 4.5mm. The best way is to use threaded spacers, which you can then mount wherever you want. You can find more details on this topic in the chapter about assembly and connections.

Micro-USB hub

If you intend to put several Yoctopuce modules in a very small space, you can connect them directly to a micro-USB hub. Yoctopuce builds a USB hub particularly small for this purpose (down to 20mmx36mm), on which you can directly solder a USB cable instead of using a USB plug. For more details, see the micro-USB hub information sheet.

YoctoHub-Ethernet, YoctoHub-Wireless and YoctoHub-GSM

You can add network connectivity to your Yocto-Light, thanks to the YoctoHub-Ethernet, the YoctoHub-Wireless and the YoctoHub-GSM which provides repectiveley Ethernet, WiFi and GSM connectivity. All of them can drive up to three devices and behave exactly like a regular computer running a VirtualHub.

1.27mm (or 1.25mm) connectors

In case you wish to connect your Yocto-Light to a Micro-hub USB or a YoctoHub without using a bulky USB connector, you can use the four 1.27mm pads just behind the USB connector. There are two options.

You can mount the Yocto-Light directly on the hub using screw and spacers, and connect it using 1.27mm board-to-board connectors. To prevent shortcuts, it is best to solder the female connector on the hub and the male connector on the Yocto-Light.

You can also use a small 4-wires cable with a 1.27mm connector. 1.25mm works as well, it does not make a difference for 4 pins. This makes it possible to move the device a few inches away. Don't put it too far away if you use that type of cable, because as the cable is not shielded, it may cause undesirable electromagnetic emissions.

Enclosure

Your Yocto-Light has been designed to be installed as is in your project. Nevertheless, Yoctopuce sells enclosures specifically designed for Yoctopuce devices. These enclosures have removable mounting brackets and magnets allowing them to stick on ferromagnetic surfaces. More details are available on the Yoctopuce web site 6. The suggested enclosure model for your Yocto-Light is the YoctoBox-Short-Thin-Black.


You can install your Yocto-Light in an optional enclosure

3. Version 1, 2, & 3: some differences

The Yocto-Light was created after OSRAM discontinued the production of the SFH5712 light sensor used in the Yocto-Light-V1. The Yocto-Light is designed to be used as a direct replacement of the Yocto-Light-V1, as its shape is strictly identical. There are nonetheless some important differences that may have to be taken into account, depending on the application.

3.1. Value measured in lux

The lux is a measuring unit derived from the lumen, which is a subjective unit depending on human beings. The difficulty of returning a value in lux resides in finding a transformation function which converts the values returned by the sensor into values corresponding as closely as possible to the human eye sensitivity. Moreover, it needs to take into account that the sensor is not necessarily sensitive to the same wave lengths as the human eye, and that it does not necessarily have the same response curve.

3.2. Yocto-Light V1

The SFH5712 sensor used in the Yocto-Light-V1 was based on a single detector. Its response was providing a direct estimation of the human eye perception. But since each SFH5712 sensor was not strictly identical, output from different sensors for a same illumination could produce be shifted up to 20%. Therefore each Yocto-Light had to be factory calibrated.



Response curves of the SFH5712 sensor, depending on the wave length.

3.3. Yocto-Light V2

The ADPS-9301 in the Yocto-Light-V2 works differently: it uses two distinct detectors, sensitive to different spectrums. Their responses can be combined to compute an estimated human eye perception. These detectors are more sensitive and more reactive than the SFH5712. They provide a faster measure rate and can take measurements in lower light.



Response curves of the ADPS-9301 sensor, depending on the wave length.

The Yocto-Light-V2 uses a transformation function to provide a value in lux on the basis of the value measured by the two detectors, taking into account the estimated spectrum and the measured intensity. This function provides a good estimate in usual ambient light (generally more precise than the Yocto-Light-V1), whatever the type of light. However, when the detector 1 is saturated (bright light), the Yocto-Light-V2 cannot estimate the spectrum anymore and its overall lux estimate is based on the hypothesis of a natural outdoor light. In case another type of intense light is used (for example a bright fluorescent or led illumination), the estimate can be largely underestimated when the detector 1 is saturated. This can produce non-continuous values when measuring a light source which grows linearly.

In most cases, the Yocto-Light-V2 can be used as a direct replacement of the Yocto-Light-V1. In cases where the transformation function embedded in the Yocto-Light-V2 is not adequate, you can obtain the raw values of the two channels of the ADPS9301 sensor, which grow continuously when the light brightens, whatever its source type.

You can also benefit from the calibration functions embedded in the Yocto-Light-V2 to modify the response curve of the sensor under a specific lighting.

3.4. Yocto-Light V3

The Yocto-Light V3 is based on a BH1751FVI from ROHMS. Its architecture looks more like the SFH5712 than the ADPS9301. This provides a better linearity than the Yocto-Light-V2 under bright artificial light. The sensor response curve has the best human eye approximation of all 3 sensors.



Response curves of the ADPS-9301 sensor, depending on the wave length.

Unlike versions 1 and 2, which are limited to 65'000 lux, version 3 can sense up to 100'000 lux. On the other hand, the refresh rate is significantly slower than for version 2: 3Hz instead of 10Hz.

4. First steps

By design, all Yoctopuce modules are driven the same way. Therefore, user's guides for all the modules of the range are very similar. If you have already carefully read through the user's guide of another Yoctopuce module, you can jump directly to the description of the module functions.

4.1. Prerequisites

In order to use your Yocto-Light module, you should have the following items at hand.

A computer

Yoctopuce modules are intended to be driven by a computer (or possibly an embedded microprocessor). You will write the control software yourself, according to your needs, using the information provided in this manual.

Yoctopuce provides software libraries to drive its modules for the following operating systems: Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and Android. Yoctopuce modules do not require installing any specific system driver, as they leverage the standard HID driver7 provided with every operating system.

Windows versions currently supported are: Windows XP, Windows 2003, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 and Windows 10. Both 32 bit and 64 bit versions are supported. Yoctopuce is frequently testing its modules on Windows 7 and Windows 10.

Mac OS X versions currently supported are: 10.9 (Maverick), 10.10 (Yosemite), 10.11 (El Capitan) and 10.12 (Sierra). Yoctopuce is frequently testing its modules on Mac OS X 10.11.

Linux kernels currently supported are the 2.6 branch, the 3.0 branch and the 4.0 branch. Other versions of the Linux kernel, and even other UNIX variants, are very likely to work as well, as Linux support is implemented through the standard libusb API. Yoctopuce is frequently testing its modules on Linux kernel 3.19.

Android versions currently supported are: Android 3.1 and later. Moreover, it is necessary for the tablet or phone to support the Host USB mode. Yoctopuce is frequently testing its modules on Android 4.x on a Nexus 7 and a Samsung Galaxy S3 with the Java for Android library.

A USB cable, type A-micro B

USB connectors exist in three sizes: the "standard" size that you probably use to connect your printer, the very common mini size to connect small devices, and finally the micro size often used to connect mobile phones, as long as they do not exhibit an apple logo. All USB modules manufactured by Yoctopuce use micro size connectors.


The most common USB 2 connectors: A, B, Mini B, Micro A, Micro B.8

To connect your Yocto-Light module to a computer, you need a USB cable of type A-micro B. The price of this cable may vary a lot depending on the source, look for it under the name USB A to micro B Data cable. Make sure not to buy a simple USB charging cable without data connectivity. The correct type of cable is available on the Yoctopuce shop.


You must plug in your Yocto-Light module with a USB cable of type A - micro B.

If you insert a USB hub between the computer and the Yocto-Light module, make sure to take into account the USB current limits. If you do not, be prepared to face unstable behaviors and unpredictable failures. You can find more details on this topic in the chapter about assembly and connections.

4.2. Testing USB connectivity

At this point, your Yocto-Light should be connected to your computer, which should have recognized it. It is time to make it work.

Go to the Yoctopuce web site and download the Virtual Hub software9. It is available for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. Normally, the Virtual Hub software serves as an abstraction layer for languages which cannot access the hardware layers of your computer. However, it also offers a succinct interface to configure your modules and to test their basic functions. You access this interface with a simple web browser10. Start the Virtual Hub software in a command line, open your preferred web browser and enter the URL http://127.0.0.1:4444. The list of the Yoctopuce modules connected to your computer is displayed.


Module list as displayed in your web bowser.

4.3. Localization

You can then physically localize each of the displayed modules by clicking on the beacon button. This puts the Yocto-led of the corresponding module in Yocto-beacon mode. It starts flashing, which allows you to easily localize it. The second effect is to display a little blue circle on the screen. You obtain the same behavior when pressing the Yocto-button of the module.

4.4. Test of the module

The first item to check is that your module is working well: click on the serial number corresponding to your module. This displays a window summarizing the properties of your Yocto-Light.


Properties of the Yocto-Light module.

This window allows you, among other things, to play with your module to check that it is working: the ambient light values are indeed displayed in real time.

4.5. Configuration

When, in the module list, you click on the configure button corresponding to your module, the configuration window is displayed.


Yocto-Light module configuration.

Firmware

The module firmware can easily be updated with the help of the interface. Firmware destined for Yoctopuce modules are available as .byn files and can be downloaded from the Yoctopuce web site.

To update a firmware, simply click on the upgrade button on the configuration window and follow the instructions. If the update fails for one reason or another, unplug and re-plug the module and start the update process again. This solves the issue in most cases. If the module was unplugged while it was being reprogrammed, it does probably not work anymore and is not listed in the interface. However, it is always possible to reprogram the module correctly by using the Virtual Hub software 11 in command line 12.

Logical name of the module

The logical name is a name that you choose, which allows you to access your module, in the same way a file name allows you to access its content. A logical name has a maximum length of 19 characters. Authorized characters are A..Z, a..z, 0..9, _, and -. If you assign the same logical name to two modules connected to the same computer and you try to access one of them through this logical name, behavior is undetermined: you have no way of knowing which of the two modules answers.

Luminosity

This parameter allows you to act on the maximal intensity of the leds of the module. This enables you, if necessary, to make it a little more discreet, while limiting its power consumption. Note that this parameter acts on all the signposting leds of the module, including the Yocto-led. If you connect a module and no led turns on, it may mean that its luminosity was set to zero.

Logical names of functions

Each Yoctopuce module has a serial number and a logical name. In the same way, each function on each Yoctopuce module has a hardware name and a logical name, the latter can be freely chosen by the user. Using logical names for functions provides a greater flexibility when programming modules.

The only function provided by the Yocto-Light module is the "lightSensor" function. Simply click on the corresponding "rename" button to assign it a new logical name.

5. Assembly and connections

This chapter provides important information regarding the use of the Yocto-Light module in real-world situations. Make sure to read it carefully before going too far into your project if you want to avoid pitfalls.

5.1. Fixing

While developing your project, you can simply let the module hang at the end of its cable. Check only that it does not come in contact with any conducting material (such as your tools). When your project is almost at an end, you need to find a way for your modules to stop moving around.


Examples of assembly on supports

The Yocto-Light module contains 2.5mm assembly holes. You can use these holes for screws. The screw head diameter must not be larger than 4.5mm or they will damage the module circuits. Make sure that the lower surface of the module is not in contact with the support. We recommend using spacers, but other methods are possible. Nothing prevents you from fixing the module with a glue gun; it will not be good-looking, but it will hold.

If your intend to screw your module directly against a conducting part, for example a metallic frame, insert an isolating layer in between. Otherwise you are bound to induce a short circuit: there are naked pads under your module. Simple insulating tape should be enough.

5.2. Moving the sensor away

The Yocto-Light module is designed so that you can split it into two parts, allowing you to move away the sensor from the command sub-module. You can split the module by simply breaking the circuit. However, you can obtain better results if you use a good pincer, or cutting pliers. When you have split the sub-modules, you can sandpaper the protruding parts without risk.


The Yocto-Light module is designed so that you can split it into two parts.


Wiring under the modules once separated.

Once the module is split into two, you must rewire the sub-modules. You can connect the sub-modules by soldering simple electric wires, but you can obtain a better result with 1.27 pitch ribbon cable. Consider using solid copper cables, rather than threaded ones: solid copper cables are somewhat less flexible, but much easier to solder.


Moving the sensor away with a ribbon cable.

You have provably noticed that the main part of the module can emit light with its informative led. Make sure that this light does not perturb your measures.

Warning: divisible Yoctopuce modules very often have very similar connection systems. Nevertheless, sub-modules from different models are not all compatible. If you connect your Yocto-Light sub-module to another type of module, such as a Yocto-Temperature for instance, it will not work, and you run a high risk of damaging your equipment.

5.3. USB power distribution

Although USB means Universal Serial BUS, USB devices are not physically organized as a flat bus but as a tree, using point-to-point connections. This has consequences on power distribution: to make it simple, every USB port must supply power to all devices directly or indirectly connected to it. And USB puts some limits.

In theory, a USB port provides 100mA, and may provide up to 500mA if available and requested by the device. In the case of a hub without external power supply, 100mA are available for the hub itself, and the hub should distribute no more than 100mA to each of its ports. This is it, and this is not much. In particular, it means that in theory, it is not possible to connect USB devices through two cascaded hubs without external power supply. In order to cascade hubs, it is necessary to use self-powered USB hubs, that provide a full 500mA to each subport.

In practice, USB would not have been as successful if it was really so picky about power distribution. As it happens, most USB hub manufacturers have been doing savings by not implementing current limitation on ports: they simply connect the computer power supply to every port, and declare themselves as self-powered hub even when they are taking all their power from the USB bus (in order to prevent any power consumption check in the operating system). This looks a bit dirty, but given the fact that computer USB ports are usually well protected by a hardware current limitation around 2000mA, it actually works in every day life, and seldom makes hardware damage.

What you should remember: if you connect Yoctopuce modules through one, or more, USB hub without external power supply, you have no safe-guard and you depend entirely on your computer manufacturer attention to provide as much current as possible on the USB ports, and to detect overloads before they lead to problems or to hardware damages. When modules are not provided enough current, they may work erratically and create unpredictable bugs. If you want to prevent any risk, do not cascade hubs without external power supply, and do not connect peripherals requiring more than 100mA behind a bus-powered hub.

In order to help controlling and planning overall power consumption for your project, all Yoctopuce modules include a built-in current sensor that tells (with 5mA precision) the consumption of the module on the USB bus.

6. Programming, general concepts

The Yoctopuce API was designed to be at the same time simple to use and sufficiently generic for the concepts used to be valid for all the modules in the Yoctopuce range, and this in all the available programming languages. Therefore, when you have understood how to drive your Yocto-Light with your favorite programming language, learning to use another module, even with a different language, will most likely take you only a minimum of time.

6.1. Programming paradigm

The Yoctopuce API is object oriented. However, for simplicity's sake, only the basics of object programming were used. Even if you are not familiar with object programming, it is unlikely that this will be a hinderance for using Yoctopuce products. Note that you will never need to allocate or deallocate an object linked to the Yoctopuce API: it is automatically managed.

There is one class per Yoctopuce function type. The name of these classes always starts with a Y followed by the name of the function, for example YTemperature, YRelay, YPressure, etc.. There is also a YModule class, dedicated to managing the modules themselves, and finally there is the static YAPI class, that supervises the global workings of the API and manages low level communications.


Structure of the Yoctopuce API.

The YSensor class

Each Yoctopuce sensor function has its dedicated class: YTemperature to measure the temperature, YVoltage to measure a voltage, YRelay to drive a relay, etc. However there is a special class that can do more: YSensor.

The YSensor class is the parent class for all Yoctopuce sensors, and can provide access to any sensor, regardless of its type. It includes methods to access all common functions. This makes it easier to create applications that use many different sensors. Moreover, if you create an application based on YSensor, it will work with all Yoctopuce sensors, even those which do no yet exist.

Programmation

In the Yoctopuce API, priority was put on the ease of access to the module functions by offering the possibility to make abstractions of the modules implementing them. Therefore, it is quite possible to work with a set of functions without ever knowing exactly which module are hosting them at the hardware level. This tremendously simplifies programming projects with a large number of modules.

From the programming stand point, your Yocto-Light is viewed as a module hosting a given number of functions. In the API, these functions are objects which can be found independently, in several ways.

Access to the functions of a module

Access by logical name

Each function can be assigned an arbitrary and persistent logical name: this logical name is stored in the flash memory of the module, even if this module is disconnected. An object corresponding to an Xxx function to which a logical name has been assigned can then be directly found with this logical name and the YXxx.FindXxx method. Note however that a logical name must be unique among all the connected modules.

Access by enumeration

You can enumerate all the functions of the same type on all the connected modules with the help of the classic enumeration functions FirstXxx and nextXxxx available for each YXxx class.

Access by hardware name

Each module function has a hardware name, assigned at the factory and which cannot be modified. The functions of a module can also be found directly with this hardware name and the YXxx.FindXxx function of the corresponding class.

Difference between Find and First

The YXxx.FindXxxx and YXxx.FirstXxxx methods do not work exactly the same way. If there is no available module, YXxx.FirstXxxx returns a null value. On the opposite, even if there is no corresponding module, YXxx.FindXxxx returns a valid object, which is not online but which could become so if the corresponding module is later connected.

Function handling

When the object corresponding to a function is found, its methods are available in a classic way. Note that most of these subfunctions require the module hosting the function to be connected in order to be handled. This is generally not guaranteed, as a USB module can be disconnected after the control software has started. The isOnline method, available in all the classes, is then very helpful.

Access to the modules

Even if it is perfectly possible to build a complete project while making a total abstraction of which function is hosted on which module, the modules themselves are also accessible from the API. In fact, they can be handled in a way quite similar to the functions. They are assigned a serial number at the factory which allows you to find the corresponding object with YModule.Find(). You can also assign arbitrary logical names to the modules to make finding them easier. Finally, the YModule class contains the YModule.FirstModule() and nextModule() enumeration methods allowing you to list the connected modules.

Functions/Module interaction

From the API standpoint, the modules and their functions are strongly uncorrelated by design. Nevertheless, the API provides the possibility to go from one to the other. Thus, the get_module() method, available for each function class, allows you to find the object corresponding to the module hosting this function. Inversely, the YModule class provides several methods allowing you to enumerate the functions available on a module.

6.2. The Yocto-Light module

The Yocto-Light module provides a single instance of the LightSensor function

module : Module

attributetypemodifiable ?
productName  String  read-only
serialNumber  String  read-only
logicalName  String  modifiable
productId  Hexadecimal number  read-only
productRelease  Hexadecimal number  read-only
firmwareRelease  String  read-only
persistentSettings  Enumerated  modifiable
luminosity  0..100%  modifiable
beacon  On/Off  modifiable
upTime  Time  read-only
usbCurrent  Used current (mA)  read-only
rebootCountdown  Integer  modifiable
userVar  Integer  modifiable

lightSensor : LightSensor
attributetypemodifiable ?
logicalName  String  modifiable
advertisedValue  String  modifiable
unit  String  read-only
currentValue  Fixed-point number  modifiable
lowestValue  Fixed-point number  modifiable
highestValue  Fixed-point number  modifiable
currentRawValue  Fixed-point number  read-only
logFrequency  Frequency  modifiable
reportFrequency  Frequency  modifiable
calibrationParam  Calibration parameters  modifiable
resolution  Fixed-point number  modifiable
sensorState  Integer  read-only
measureType  Enumerated  modifiable

dataLogger : DataLogger
attributetypemodifiable ?
logicalName  String  modifiable
advertisedValue  String  modifiable
currentRunIndex  Integer  read-only
timeUTC  UTC time  modifiable
recording  Enumerated  modifiable
autoStart  On/Off  modifiable
beaconDriven  On/Off  modifiable
clearHistory  Boolean  modifiable

6.3. Module control interface

This interface is identical for all Yoctopuce USB modules. It can be used to control the module global parameters, and to enumerate the functions provided by each module.

productName

Character string containing the commercial name of the module, as set by the factory.

serialNumber

Character string containing the serial number, unique and programmed at the factory. For a Yocto-Light module, this serial number always starts with LIGHTMK1. You can use the serial number to access a given module by software.

logicalName

Character string containing the logical name of the module, initially empty. This attribute can be modified at will by the user. Once initialized to an non-empty value, it can be used to access a given module. If two modules with the same logical name are in the same project, there is no way to determine which one answers when one tries accessing by logical name. The logical name is limited to 19 characters among A..Z,a..z,0..9,_, and -.

productId

USB device identifier of the module, preprogrammed to 25 at the factory.

productRelease

Release number of the module hardware, preprogrammed at the factory.

firmwareRelease

Release version of the embedded firmware, changes each time the embedded software is updated.

persistentSettings

State of persistent module settings: loaded from flash memory, modified by the user or saved to flash memory.

luminosity

Lighting strength of the informative leds (e.g. the Yocto-Led) contained in the module. It is an integer value which varies between 0 (leds turned off) and 100 (maximum led intensity). The default value is 50. To change the strength of the module leds, or to turn them off completely, you only need to change this value.

beacon

Activity of the localization beacon of the module.

upTime

Time elapsed since the last time the module was powered on.

usbCurrent

Current consumed by the module on the USB bus, in milli-amps.

rebootCountdown

Countdown to use for triggering a reboot of the module.

userVar

32bit integer variable available for user storage.

6.4. LightSensor function interface

The Yoctopuce class YLightSensor allows you to read and configure Yoctopuce light sensors. It inherits from YSensor class the core functions to read measurements, to register callback functions, to access the autonomous datalogger. This class adds the ability to easily perform a one-point linear calibration to compensate the effect of a glass or filter placed in front of the sensor. For some light sensors with several working modes, this class can select the desired working mode.

logicalName

Character string containing the logical name of the light sensor, initially empty. This attribute can be modified at will by the user. Once initialized to an non-empty value, it can be used to access the light sensor directly. If two light sensors with the same logical name are used in the same project, there is no way to determine which one answers when one tries accessing by logical name. The logical name is limited to 19 characters among A..Z,a..z,0..9,_, and -.

advertisedValue

Short character string summarizing the current state of the light sensor, that is automatically advertised up to the parent hub. For a light sensor, the advertised value is the current value of the ambient light.

unit

Short character string representing the measuring unit for the ambient light.

currentValue

Current value of the ambient light, in the specified unit, as a floating point number.

lowestValue

Minimal value of the ambient light, in the specified unit, as a floating point number.

highestValue

Maximal value of the ambient light, in the specified unit, as a floating point number.

currentRawValue

Uncalibrated, unrounded raw value returned by the sensor, as a floating point number.

logFrequency

Datalogger recording frequency, or "OFF" when measures should not be stored in the data logger flash memory.

reportFrequency

Timed value notification frequency, or "OFF" when timed value notifications are disabled for this function.

calibrationParam

Extra calibration parameters (for instance to compensate for the effects of an enclosure), as an array of 16 bit words.

resolution

Measure resolution (i.e. precision of the numeric representation, not necessarily of the measure itself).

sensorState

Sensor health state (zero when a current measure is available).

measureType

Light sensor type used in the device. The measure can either approximate the response of the human eye, focus on a specific light spectrum, depending on the capabilities of the light-sensitive cell.

6.5. DataLogger function interface

Yoctopuce sensors include a non-volatile memory capable of storing ongoing measured data automatically, without requiring a permanent connection to a computer. The DataLogger function controls the global parameters of the internal data logger.

logicalName

Character string containing the logical name of the data logger, initially empty. This attribute can be modified at will by the user. Once initialized to an non-empty value, it can be used to access the data logger directly. If two data loggers with the same logical name are used in the same project, there is no way to determine which one answers when one tries accessing by logical name. The logical name is limited to 19 characters among A..Z,a..z,0..9,_, and -.

advertisedValue

Short character string summarizing the current state of the data logger, that is automatically advertised up to the parent hub. For a data logger, the advertised value is its recording state (ON or OFF).

currentRunIndex

Current run number, corresponding to the number of time the module was powered on with the dataLogger enabled at some point.

timeUTC

Current UTC time, in case it is desirable to bind an absolute time reference to the data stored by the data logger. This time must be set up by software.

recording

Activation state of the data logger. The data logger can be enabled and disabled at will, using this attribute, but its state on power on is determined by the autoStart persistent attribute. When the datalogger is enabled but not yet ready to record data, its state is set to PENDING.

autoStart

Automatic start of the data logger on power on. Setting this attribute ensures that the data logger is always turned on when the device is powered up, without need for a software command.

beaconDriven

Synchronize the sate of the localization beacon and the state of the data logger. If this attribute is set, it is possible to start the recording with the Yocto-button or the attribute beacon of the function YModule. In the same way, if the attribute recording is changed, the sate of the localization beacon is updated. Note: when this attribute is set the localization beacon pulses slower than usual.

clearHistory

Attribute that can be set to true to clear recorded data.

6.6. What interface: Native, DLL or Service ?

There are several methods to control you Yoctopuce module by software.

Native control

In this case, the software driving your project is compiled directly with a library which provides control of the modules. Objectively, it is the simplest and most elegant solution for the end user. The end user then only needs to plug the USB cable and run your software for everything to work. Unfortunately, this method is not always available or even possible.


The application uses the native library to control the locally connected module

Native control by DLL

Here, the main part of the code controlling the modules is located in a DLL. The software is compiled with a small library which provides control of the DLL. It is the fastest method to code module support in a given language. Indeed, the "useful" part of the control code is located in the DLL which is the same for all languages: the effort to support a new language is limited to coding the small library which controls the DLL. From the end user stand point, there are few differences: one must simply make sure that the DLL is installed on the end user's computer at the same time as the main software.


The application uses the DLL to natively control the locally connected module

Control by service

Some languages do simply not allow you to easily gain access to the hardware layers of the machine. It is the case for Javascript, for instance. To deal with this case, Yoctopuce provides a solution in the form of a small piece of software called VirtualHub13. It can access the modules, and your application only needs to use a library which offers all necessary functions to control the modules via this VirtualHub. The end users will have to start the VirtualHub before running the project control software itself, unless they decide to install the hub as a service/deamon, in which case the VirtualHub starts automatically when the machine starts up.


The application connects itself to the VirtualHub to gain access to the module

The service control method comes with a non-negligible advantage: the application does not need to run on the machine on which the modules are connected. The application can very well be located on another machine which connects itself to the service to drive the modules. Moreover, the native libraries and DLL mentioned above are also able to connect themselves remotely to one or several machines running VirtualHub.


When a VirtualHub is used, the control application does not need to reside on the same machine as the module.

Whatever the selected programming language and the control paradigm used, programming itself stays strictly identical. From one language to another, functions bear exactly the same name, and have the same parameters. The only differences are linked to the constraints of the languages themselves.

Language Native  Native with DLL  Virtual hub 
C++
Objective-C -
Delphi -
Python -
VisualBasic .Net -
C# .Net -
EcmaScript / JavaScript - -
PHP - -
Java -
Java for Android -
Command line -

Support methods for different languages

Limitations of the Yoctopuce libraries

Natives et DLL libraries have a technical limitation. On the same computer, you cannot concurrently run several applications accessing Yoctopuce devices directly. If you want to run several projects on the same computer, make sure your control applications use Yoctopuce devices through a VirtualHub software. The modification is trivial: it is just a matter of parameter change in the yRegisterHub() call.

6.7. Programming, where to start?

At this point of the user's guide, you should know the main theoretical points of your Yocto-Light. It is now time to practice. You must download the Yoctopuce library for your favorite programming language from the Yoctopuce web site14. Then skip directly to the chapter corresponding to the chosen programming language.

All the examples described in this guide are available in the programming libraries. For some languages, the libraries also include some complete graphical applications, with their source code.

When you have mastered the basic programming of your module, you can turn to the chapter on advanced programming that describes some techniques that will help you make the most of your Yocto-Light.

7. Using the Yocto-Light in command line

When you want to perform a punctual operation on your Yocto-Light, such as reading a value, assigning a logical name, and so on, you can obviously use the Virtual Hub, but there is a simpler, faster, and more efficient method: the command line API.

The command line API is a set of executables, one by type of functionality offered by the range of Yoctopuce products. These executables are provided pre-compiled for all the Yoctopuce officially supported platforms/OS. Naturally, the executable sources are also provided15.

7.1. Installing

Download the command line API16. You do not need to run any setup, simply copy the executables corresponding to your platform/OS in a directory of your choice. You may add this directory to your PATH variable to be able to access these executables from anywhere. You are all set, you only need to connect your Yocto-Light, open a shell, and start working by typing for example:

C:\>YLightSensor any get_currentValue

To use the command API on Linux, you need either have root privileges or to define an udev rule for your system. See the Troubleshooting chapter for more details.

7.2. Use: general description

All the command line API executables work on the same principle. They must be called the following way


C:\>Executable [options] [target] command [parameter]

[options] manage the global workings of the commands, they allow you, for instance, to pilot a module remotely through the network, or to force the module to save its configuration after executing the command.

[target] is the name of the module or of the function to which the command applies. Some very generic commands do not need a target. You can also use the aliases "any" and "all", or a list of names separated by comas without space.

command is the command you want to run. Almost all the functions available in the classic programming APIs are available as commands. You need to respect neither the case nor the underlined characters in the command name.

[parameters] logically are the parameters needed by the command.

At any time, the command line API executables can provide a rather detailed help. Use for instance:


C:\>executable /help

to know the list of available commands for a given command line API executable, or even:


C:\>executable command /help

to obtain a detailed description of the parameters of a command.

7.3. Control of the LightSensor function

To control the LightSensor function of your Yocto-Light, you need the YLightSensor executable file.

For instance, you can launch:

C:\>YLightSensor any get_currentValue

This example uses the "any" target to indicate that we want to work on the first LightSensor function found among all those available on the connected Yoctopuce modules when running. This prevents you from having to know the exact names of your function and of your module.

But you can use logical names as well, as long as you have configured them beforehand. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with the LIGHTMK1-123456 serial number which you have called "MyModule", and its lightSensor function which you have renamed "MyFunction". The five following calls are strictly equivalent (as long as MyFunction is defined only once, to avoid any ambiguity).


C:\>YLightSensor LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor describe

C:\>YLightSensor LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction describe

C:\>YLightSensor MyModule.lightSensor describe

C:\>YLightSensor MyModule.MyFunction describe

C:\>YLightSensor MyFunction describe

To work on all the LightSensor functions at the same time, use the "all" target.


C:\>YLightSensor all describe

For more details on the possibilities of the YLightSensor executable, use:


C:\>YLightSensor /help

7.4. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar way with the help of the YModule executable. For example, to obtain the list of all the connected modules, use:


C:\>YModule inventory

You can also use the following command to obtain an even more detailed list of the connected modules:


C:\>YModule all describe

Each xxx property of the module can be obtained thanks to a command of the get_xxxx() type, and the properties which are not read only can be modified with the set_xxx() command. For example:


C:\>YModule LIGHTMK1-12346 set_logicalName MonPremierModule

C:\>YModule LIGHTMK1-12346 get_logicalName

Changing the settings of the module

When you want to change the settings of a module, simply use the corresponding set_xxx command. However, this change happens only in the module RAM: if the module restarts, the changes are lost. To store them permanently, you must tell the module to save its current configuration in its nonvolatile memory. To do so, use the saveToFlash command. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the revertFromFlash method. For example:


C:\>YModule LIGHTMK1-12346 set_logicalName MonPremierModule
C:\>YModule LIGHTMK1-12346 saveToFlash

Note that you can do the same thing in a single command with the -s option.


C:\>YModule -s  LIGHTMK1-12346 set_logicalName MonPremierModule

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

7.5. Limitations

The command line API has the same limitation than the other APIs: there can be only one application at a given time which can access the modules natively. By default, the command line API works in native mode.

You can easily work around this limitation by using a Virtual Hub: run the VirtualHub17 on the concerned machine, and use the executables of the command line API with the -r option. For example, if you use:


C:\>YModule  inventory

you obtain a list of the modules connected by USB, using a native access. If another command which accesses the modules natively is already running, this does not work. But if you run a Virtual Hub, and you give your command in the form:


C:\>YModule -r 127.0.0.1 inventory

it works because the command is not executed natively anymore, but through the Virtual Hub. Note that the Virtual Hub counts as a native application.

8. Using Yocto-Light with JavaScript / EcmaScript

EcmaScript is the official name of the standardized version of the web-oriented programming language commonly referred to as JavaScript. This Yoctopuce library take advantages of advanced features introduced in EcmaScript 2017. It has therefore been named Library for JavaScript / EcmaScript 2017 to differentiate it from the previous Library for JavaScript, now deprecated in favor of this new version.

This library provides access to Yoctopuce devices for modern JavaScript engines. It can be used within a browser as well as with Node.js. The library will automatically detect upon initialization whether the runtime environment is a browser or a Node.js virtual machine, and use the most appropriate system libraries accordingly.

Asynchronous communication with the devices is handled across the whole library using Promise objects, leveraging the new EcmaScript 2017 async / await non-blocking syntax for asynchronous I/O (see below). This syntax is now available out-of-the-box in most Javascript engines. No transpilation is needed: no Babel, no jspm, just plain Javascript. Here is your favorite engines minimum version needed to run this code. All of them are officially released at the time we write this document.

If you need backward-compatibility with older releases, you can always run Babel to transpile your code and the library to older standards, as described a few paragraphs below.

We don't suggest using jspm 0.17 anymore since that tool is still in Beta after 18 month, and having to use an extra tool to implement our library is pointless now that async / await are part of the standard.

8.1. Blocking I/O versus Asynchronous I/O in JavaScript

JavaScript is single-threaded by design. That means, if a program is actively waiting for the result of a network-based operation such as reading from a sensor, the whole program is blocked. In browser environments, this can even completely freeze the user interface. For this reason, the use of blocking I/O in JavaScript is strongly discouraged nowadays, and blocking network APIs are getting deprecated everywhere.

Instead of using parallel threads, JavaScript relies on asynchronous I/O to handle operations with a possible long timeout: whenever a long I/O call needs to be performed, it is only triggered and but then the code execution flow is terminated. The JavaScript engine is therefore free to handle other pending tasks, such as UI. Whenever the pending I/O call is completed, the system invokes a callback function with the result of the I/O call to resume execution of the original execution flow.

When used with plain callback functions, as pervasive in Node.js libraries, asynchronous I/O tend to produce code with poor readability, as the execution flow is broken into many disconnected callback functions. Fortunately, new methods have emerged recently to improve that situation. In particular, the use of Promise objects to abstract and work with asynchronous tasks helps a lot. Any function that makes a long I/O operation can return a Promise, which can be used by the caller to chain subsequent operations in the same flow. Promises are part of EcmaScript 2015 standard.

Promise objects are good, but what makes them even better is the new async / await keywords to handle asynchronous I/O:

Long story made short, async and await make it possible to write EcmaScript code with all benefits of asynchronous I/O, but without breaking the code flow. It is almost like multi-threaded execution, except that control switch between pending tasks only happens at places where the await keyword appears.

We have therefore chosen to write our new EcmaScript library using Promises and async functions, so that you can use the friendly await syntax. To keep it easy to remember, all public methods of the EcmaScript library are async, i.e. return a Promise object, except:

8.2. Using Yoctopuce library for JavaScript / EcmaScript 2017

JavaScript is one of those languages which do not generally allow you to directly access the hardware layers of your computer. Therefore the library can only be used to access network-enabled devices (connected through a YoctoHub), or USB devices accessible through Yoctopuce TCP/IP to USB gateway, named VirtualHub.

Go to the Yoctopuce web site and download the following items:

Extract the library files in a folder of your choice, you will find many of examples in it. Connect your modules and start the VirtualHub software. You do not need to install any driver.

Using the official Yoctopuce library for node.js

Start by installing the latest Node.js version (v7.6 or later) on your system. It is very easy. You can download it from the official web site: http://nodejs.org. Make sure to install it fully, including npm, and add it to the system path.

To give it a try, go into one of the example directory (for instance example_nodejs/Doc-Inventory). You will see that it include an application description file (package.json) and a source file (demo.js). To download and setup the libraries needed by this example, just run:


npm install

Once done, you can start the example file using:


node demo.js

Using a local copy of the Yoctopuce library with node.js

If for some reason you need to make changes to the Yoctopuce library, you can easily configure your project to use the local copy in the lib/ subdirectory rather than the official npm package. In order to do so, simply type the following command in your project directory:


npm link ../../lib

Using the Yoctopuce library within a browser (HTML)

For HTML examples, it is even simpler: there is nothing to install. Each example is a single HTML file that you can open in a browser to try it. In this context, loading the Yoctopuce library is no different from any standard HTML script include tag.

Using the Yoctoluce library on older JavaScript engines

If you need to run this library on older JavaScript engines, you can use Babel20 to transpile your code and the library into older JavaScript standards. To install Babel with typical settings, simply use:


npm instal -g babel-cli
npm instal babel-preset-env

You would typically ask Babel to put the transpiled files in another directory, named compat for instance. Your files and all files of the Yoctopuce library should be transpiled, as follow:


babel --presets env demo.js --out-dir compat/
babel --presets env ../../lib --out-dir compat/

Although this approach is based on node.js toolchain, it actually works as well for transpiling JavaScript files for use in a browser. The only thing that you cannot do so easily is transpiling JavaScript code embedded directly in an HTML page. You have to use an external script file for using EcmaScript 2017 syntax with Babel.

Babel has many smart features, such as a watch mode that will automatically refresh transpiled files whenever the source file is changed, but this is beyond the scope of this note. You will find more in Babel documentation.

Backward-compatibility with the old JavaScript library

This new library is not fully backward-compatible with the old JavaScript library, because there is no way to transparently map the old blocking API to the new asynchronous API. The method names however are the same, and old synchronous code can easily be made asynchronous just by adding the proper await keywords before the method calls. For instance, simply replace:


beaconState = module.get_beacon();

by


beaconState = await module.get_beacon();

Apart from a few exceptions, most XXX_async redundant methods have been removed as well, as they would have introduced confusion on the proper way of handling asynchronous behaviors. It is however very simple to get an async method to invoke a callback upon completion, using the returned Promise object. For instance, you can replace:


module.get_beacon_async(callback, myContext);

by


module.get_beacon().then(function(res) { callback(myContext, module, res); });

In some cases, it might be desirable to get a sensor value using a method identical to the old synchronous methods (without using Promises), even if it returns a slightly outdated cached value since I/O is not possible. For this purpose, the EcmaScript library introduce new classes called synchronous proxies. A synchronous proxy is an object that mirrors the most recent state of the connected class, but can be read using regular synchronous function calls. For instance, instead of writing:


async function logInfo(module)
{
    console.log('Name: '+await module.get_logicalName());
    console.log('Beacon: '+await module.get_beacon());
}

...
logInfo(myModule);
...

you can use:


function logInfoProxy(moduleSyncProxy)
{
    console.log('Name: '+moduleProxy.get_logicalName());
    console.log('Beacon: '+moduleProxy.get_beacon());
}

logInfoSync(await myModule.get_syncProxy());

You can also rewrite this last asynchronous call as:


myModule.get_syncProxy().then(logInfoProxy);

8.3. Control of the LightSensor function

A few lines of code are enough to use a Yocto-Light. Here is the skeleton of a JavaScript code snipplet to use the LightSensor function.


// For Node.js, we use function require()
// For HTML, we would use <script src="...">
require('yoctolib-es2017/yocto_api.js');
require('yoctolib-es2017/yocto_lightsensor.js');

// Get access to your device, through the VirtualHub running locally
await YAPI.RegisterHub('127.0.0.1');
var lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");

// Check that the module is online to handle hot-plug
if(await lightsensor.isOnline())
{
    // Use lightsensor.get_currentValue()
    [...]
}

Let us look at these lines in more details.

yocto_api and yocto_lightsensor import

These two import provide access to functions allowing you to manage Yoctopuce modules. yocto_api is always needed, yocto_lightsensor is necessary to manage modules containing a light sensor, such as Yocto-Light. Other imports can be useful in other cases, such as YModule which can let you enumerate any type of Yoctopuce device.

YAPI.RegisterHub

The RegisterHub method allows you to indicate on which machine the Yoctopuce modules are located, more precisely on which machine the VirtualHub software is running. In our case, the 127.0.0.1:4444 address indicates the local machine, port 4444 (the standard port used by Yoctopuce). You can very well modify this address, and enter the address of another machine on which the VirtualHub software is running, or of a YoctoHub. If the host cannot be reached, this function will trigger an exception.

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor

The FindLightSensor method allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can also use logical names, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MaFonction")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MonModule.lightSensor")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MonModule.MaFonction")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MaFonction")

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by FindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

A real example, for Node.js

Open a command window (a terminal, a shell...) and go into the directory example_nodejs/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light within Yoctopuce library for JavaScript / EcmaScript 2017. In there, you will find a file named demo.js with the sample code below, which uses the functions explained above, but this time used with all side materials needed to make it work nicely as a small demo.

If your Yocto-Light is not connected on the host running the browser, replace in the example the address 127.0.0.1 by the IP address of the host on which the Yocto-Light is connected and where you run the VirtualHub.

UNABLE TO INCLUDE
/yoctoprod/projects/yoctolight/public/examples/ecmascript/node.js

As explained at the beginning of this chapter, you need to have Node.js v7.6 or later installed to try this example. When done, you can type the following two commands to automatically download and install the dependencies for building this example:


npm install
You can the start the sample code within Node.js using the following command, replacing the [...] by the arguments that you want to pass to the demo code:

node demo.js [...]

Same example, but this time running in a browser

If you want to see how to use the library within a browser rather than with Node.js, switch to the directory example_html/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light. You will find there a single HTML file, with a JavaScript section similar to the code above, but with a few changes since it has to interact through an HTML page rather than through the JavaScript console.

UNABLE TO INCLUDE
/yoctoprod/projects/yoctolight/public/examples/ecmascript/helloworld.html

No installation is needed to run this example, all you have to do is open the HTML file using a web browser,

8.4. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.

"use strict";

require('yoctolib-es2017/yocto_api.js');

async function startDemo(args)
{
    await YAPI.LogUnhandledPromiseRejections();

    // Setup the API to use the VirtualHub on local machine
    let errmsg = new YErrorMsg();
    if(await YAPI.RegisterHub('127.0.0.1', errmsg) != YAPI.SUCCESS) {
        console.log('Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1: '+errmsg.msg);
        return;
    }

    // Select the relay to use
    let module = YModule.FindModule(args[0]);
    if(await module.isOnline()) {
        if(args.length > 1) {
            if(args[1] == 'ON') {
                await module.set_beacon(YModule.BEACON_ON);
            } else {
                await module.set_beacon(YModule.BEACON_OFF);
            }
        }
        console.log('serial:       '+await module.get_serialNumber());
        console.log('logical name: '+await module.get_logicalName());
        console.log('luminosity:   '+await module.get_luminosity()+'%');
        console.log('beacon:       '+(await module.get_beacon()==YModule.BEACON_ON?'ON':'OFF'));
        console.log('upTime:       '+parseInt(await module.get_upTime()/1000)+' sec');
        console.log('USB current:  '+await module.get_usbCurrent()+' mA');
        console.log('logs:');
        console.log(await module.get_lastLogs());
    } else {
        console.log("Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)\n");
    }
    await YAPI.FreeAPI();
}

if(process.argv.length < 2) {
    console.log("usage: node demo.js <serial or logicalname> [ ON | OFF ]");
} else {
    startDemo(process.argv.slice(2));
}
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

"use strict";

require('yoctolib-es2017/yocto_api.js');

async function startDemo(args)
{
    await YAPI.LogUnhandledPromiseRejections();

    // Setup the API to use the VirtualHub on local machine
    let errmsg = new YErrorMsg();
    if(await YAPI.RegisterHub('127.0.0.1', errmsg) != YAPI.SUCCESS) {
        console.log('Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1: '+errmsg.msg);
        return;
    }
   
    // Select the relay to use
    let module = YModule.FindModule(args[0]);
    if(await module.isOnline()) {
        if(args.length > 1) {
            let newname = args[1];
            if (!await YAPI.CheckLogicalName(newname)) {
                console.log("Invalid name (" + newname + ")");
                process.exit(1);
            }
            await module.set_logicalName(newname);
            await module.saveToFlash();
        }
        console.log('Current name: '+await module.get_logicalName());
    } else {
        console.log("Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)\n");
    }
    await YAPI.FreeAPI();
}

if(process.argv.length < 2) {
    console.log("usage: node demo.js <serial> [newLogicalName]");
} else {
    startDemo(process.argv.slice(2));
}
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the YModule.FirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not null. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

"use strict";

require('yoctolib-es2017/yocto_api.js');

async function startDemo()
{
    await YAPI.LogUnhandledPromiseRejections();
    await YAPI.DisableExceptions();

    // Setup the API to use the VirtualHub on local machine
    let errmsg = new YErrorMsg();
    if (await YAPI.RegisterHub('127.0.0.1', errmsg) != YAPI.SUCCESS) {
        console.log('Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1');
        return;
    }
    refresh();
}

async function refresh()
{
    try {
        let errmsg = new YErrorMsg();
        await YAPI.UpdateDeviceList(errmsg);

        let module = YModule.FirstModule();
        while(module) {
            let line = await module.get_serialNumber();
            line += '(' + (await module.get_productName()) + ')';
            console.log(line);
            module = module.nextModule();
        }
        setTimeout(refresh, 500);
    } catch(e) {
        console.log(e);
    }
}

try {
    startDemo();
} catch(e) {
    console.log(e);
}
 

8.5. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software. The only way to prevent this is to implement one of the two error handling techniques described below.

The method recommended by most programming languages for unpredictable error handling is the use of exceptions. By default, it is the behavior of the Yoctopuce library. If an error happens while you try to access a module, the library throws an exception. In this case, there are three possibilities:

As this latest situation is not the most desirable, the Yoctopuce library offers another possibility for error handling, allowing you to create a robust program without needing to catch exceptions at every line of code. You simply need to call the YAPI.DisableExceptions() function to commute the library to a mode where exceptions for all the functions are systematically replaced by specific return values, which can be tested by the caller when necessary. For each function, the name of each return value in case of error is systematically documented in the library reference. The name always follows the same logic: a get_state() method returns a Y_STATE_INVALID value, a get_currentValue method returns a Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID value, and so on. In any case, the returned value is of the expected type and is not a null pointer which would risk crashing your program. At worst, if you display the value without testing it, it will be outside the expected bounds for the returned value. In the case of functions which do not normally return information, the return value is YAPI_SUCCESS if everything went well, and a different error code in case of failure.

When you work without exceptions, you can obtain an error code and an error message explaining the source of the error. You can request them from the object which returned the error, calling the errType() and errMessage() methods. Their returned values contain the same information as in the exceptions when they are active.

9. Using Yocto-Light with PHP

PHP is, like Javascript, an atypical language when interfacing with hardware is at stakes. Nevertheless, using PHP with Yoctopuce modules provides you with the opportunity to very easily create web sites which are able to interact with their physical environment, and this is not available to every web server. This technique has a direct application in home automation: a few Yoctopuce modules, a PHP server, and you can interact with your home from anywhere on the planet, as long as you have an internet connection.

PHP is one of those languages which do not allow you to directly access the hardware layers of your computer. Therefore you need to run a virtual hub on the machine on which your modules are connected.

To start your tests with PHP, you need a PHP 5.3 (or more) server21, preferably locally on you machine. If you wish to use the PHP server of your internet provider, it is possible, but you will probably need to configure your ADSL router for it to accept and forward TCP request on the 4444 port.

9.1. Getting ready

Go to the Yoctopuce web site and download the following items:

Decompress the library files in a folder of your choice accessible to your web server, connect your modules, run the VirtualHub software, and you are ready to start your first tests. You do not need to install any driver.

9.2. Control of the LightSensor function

A few lines of code are enough to use a Yocto-Light. Here is the skeleton of a PHP code snipplet to use the LightSensor function.


include('yocto_api.php');
include('yocto_lightsensor.php');

// Get access to your device, through the VirtualHub running locally
yRegisterHub('http://127.0.0.1:4444/',$errmsg);
$lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");

// Check that the module is online to handle hot-plug
if(lightsensor->isOnline())
{
    // Use lightsensor->get_currentValue(), ...
}

Let's look at these lines in more details.

yocto_api.php and yocto_lightsensor.php

These two PHP includes provides access to the functions allowing you to manage Yoctopuce modules. yocto_api.php must always be included, yocto_lightsensor.php is necessary to manage modules containing a light sensor, such as Yocto-Light.

yRegisterHub

The yRegisterHub function allows you to indicate on which machine the Yoctopuce modules are located, more precisely on which machine the VirtualHub software is running. In our case, the 127.0.0.1:4444 address indicates the local machine, port 4444 (the standard port used by Yoctopuce). You can very well modify this address, and enter the address of another machine on which the VirtualHub software is running.

yFindLightSensor

The yFindLightSensor function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can use logical names as well, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


$lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");
$lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction");
$lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyModule.lightSensor");
$lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyModule.MyFunction");
$lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyFunction");

yFindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by yFindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by yFindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

A real example

Open your preferred text editor24, copy the code sample below, save it with the Yoctopuce library files in a location which is accessible to you web server, then use your preferred web browser to access this page. The code is also provided in the directory Examples/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light of the Yoctopuce library.

In this example, you will recognize the functions explained above, but this time used with all side materials needed to make it work nicely as a small demo.

<HTML>
<HEAD>
 <TITLE>Hello World</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<?php
  include('yocto_api.php');
  include('yocto_lightsensor.php');

  // Use explicit error handling rather than exceptions
  yDisableExceptions();

  // Setup the API to use the VirtualHub on local machine
  if(yRegisterHub('http://127.0.0.1:4444/',$errmsg) != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
      die("Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1");
  }

  @$serial = $_GET['serial'];
  if ($serial != '') {
      // Check if a specified module is available online
      $lux = yFindLightSensor("$serial.lightSensor");
      if (!$lux->isOnline()) {
          die("Module not connected (check serial and USB cable)");
      }
  } else {
      // or use any connected module suitable for the demo
      $lux = yFirstLightSensor();
      if(is_null($lux)) {
          die("No module connected (check USB cable)");
      } else {
          $serial = $lux->module()->get_serialnumber();
      }
  }
  Print("Module to use: <input name='serial' value='$serial'><br>");

  $value = $lux->get_currentValue();
  Print("Ambient light: $value lx<br>");
  yFreeAPI();

  // trigger auto-refresh after one second
  Print("<script language='javascript1.5' type='text/JavaScript'>\n");
  Print("setTimeout('window.location.reload()',1000);");
  Print("</script>\n");
?>
</BODY>
</HTML>
 

9.3. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.

<HTML>
<HEAD>
 <TITLE>Module Control</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<FORM method='get'>
<?php
  include('yocto_api.php');

  // Use explicit error handling rather than exceptions
  yDisableExceptions();

  // Setup the API to use the VirtualHub on local machine
  if(yRegisterHub('http://127.0.0.1:4444/',$errmsg) != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
      die("Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1 : ".$errmsg);
  }

  @$serial = $_GET['serial'];
  if ($serial != '') {
      // Check if a specified module is available online
      $module = yFindModule("$serial");
      if (!$module->isOnline()) {
          die("Module not connected (check serial and USB cable)");
      }
  } else {
      // or use any connected module suitable for the demo
      $module = yFirstModule();
      if($module) { // skip VirtualHub
          $module = $module->nextModule();
      }
      if(is_null($module)) {
          die("No module connected (check USB cable)");
      } else {
          $serial = $module->get_serialnumber();
      }
  }
  Print("Module to use: <input name='serial' value='$serial'><br>");

  if (isset($_GET['beacon'])) {
      if ($_GET['beacon']=='ON')
          $module->set_beacon(Y_BEACON_ON);
      else
          $module->set_beacon(Y_BEACON_OFF);
  }
  printf('serial: %s<br>',$module->get_serialNumber());
  printf('logical name: %s<br>',$module->get_logicalName());
  printf('luminosity: %s<br>',$module->get_luminosity());
  print('beacon: ');
  if($module->get_beacon() == Y_BEACON_ON) {
      printf("<input type='radio' name='beacon' value='ON' checked>ON ");
      printf("<input type='radio' name='beacon' value='OFF'>OFF<br>");
  } else {
      printf("<input type='radio' name='beacon' value='ON'>ON ");
      printf("<input type='radio' name='beacon' value='OFF' checked>OFF<br>");
  }
  printf('upTime: %s sec<br>',intVal($module->get_upTime()/1000));
  printf('USB current: %smA<br>',$module->get_usbCurrent());
  printf('logs:<br><pre>%s</pre>',$module->get_lastLogs());
  yFreeAPI();
?>
<input type='submit' value='refresh'>
</FORM>
</BODY>
</HTML>
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

<HTML>
<HEAD>
 <TITLE>save settings</TITLE>
<BODY>
<FORM method='get'>
<?php
  include('yocto_api.php');

  // Use explicit error handling rather than exceptions
  yDisableExceptions();

  // Setup the API to use the VirtualHub on local machine
  if(yRegisterHub('http://127.0.0.1:4444/',$errmsg) != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
      die("Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1");
  }

  @$serial = $_GET['serial'];
  if ($serial != '') {
      // Check if a specified module is available online
      $module = yFindModule("$serial");
      if (!$module->isOnline()) {
          die("Module not connected (check serial and USB cable)");
      }
  } else {
      // or use any connected module suitable for the demo
      $module = yFirstModule();
      if($module) { // skip VirtualHub
          $module = $module->nextModule();
      }
      if(is_null($module)) {
          die("No module connected (check USB cable)");
      } else {
          $serial = $module->get_serialnumber();
      }
  }
  Print("Module to use: <input name='serial' value='$serial'><br>");

  if (isset($_GET['newname'])){
      $newname = $_GET['newname'];
      if (!yCheckLogicalName($newname))
          die('Invalid name');
      $module->set_logicalName($newname);
      $module->saveToFlash();
  }
  printf("Current name: %s<br>", $module->get_logicalName());
  print("New name: <input name='newname' value='' maxlength=19><br>");
  yFreeAPI();
?>
<input type='submit'>
</FORM>
</BODY>
</HTML>
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not NULL. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

<HTML>
<HEAD>
 <TITLE>inventory</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<H1>Device list</H1>
<TT>
<?php
    include('yocto_api.php');
    yRegisterHub("http://127.0.0.1:4444/");
    $module   = yFirstModule();
    while (!is_null($module)) {
        printf("%s (%s)<br>", $module->get_serialNumber(),
               $module->get_productName());
        $module=$module->nextModule();
    }
    yFreeAPI();
?>
</TT>
</BODY>
</HTML>
 

9.4. HTTP callback API and NAT filters

The PHP library is able to work in a specific mode called HTTP callback Yocto-API. With this mode, you can control Yoctopuce devices installed behind a NAT filter, such as a DSL router for example, and this without needing to open a port. The typical application is to control Yoctopuce devices, located on a private network, from a public web site.

The NAT filter: advantages and disadvantages

A DSL router which translates network addresses (NAT) works somewhat like a private phone switchboard (a PBX): internal extensions can call each other and call the outside; but seen from the outside, there is only one official phone number, that of the switchboard itself. You cannot reach the internal extensions from the outside.


Typical DSL configuration: LAN machines are isolated from the outside by the DSL router

Transposed to the network, we have the following: appliances connected to your home automation network can communicate with one another using a local IP address (of the 192.168.xxx.yyy type), and contact Internet servers through their public address. However, seen from the outside, you have only one official IP address, assigned to the DSL router only, and you cannot reach your network appliances directly from the outside. It is rather restrictive, but it is a relatively efficient protection against intrusions.


Responses from request from LAN machines are routed.


But requests from the outside are blocked.

Seeing Internet without being seen provides an enormous security advantage. However, this signifies that you cannot, a priori, set up your own web server at home to control a home automation installation from the outside. A solution to this problem, advised by numerous home automation system dealers, consists in providing outside visibility to your home automation server itself, by adding a routing rule in the NAT configuration of the DSL router. The issue of this solution is that it exposes the home automation server to external attacks.

The HTTP callback API solves this issue without having to modify the DSL router configuration. The module control script is located on an external site, and it is the VirtualHub which is in charge of calling it a regular intervals.


The HTTP callback API uses the VirtualHub which initiates the requests.

Configuration

The callback API thus uses the VirtualHub as a gateway. All the communications are initiated by the VirtualHub. They are thus outgoing communications and therefore perfectly authorized by the DSL router.

You must configure the VirtualHub so that it calls the PHP script on a regular basis. To do so:

  1. Launch a VirtualHub
  2. Access its interface, usually 127.0.0.1:4444
  3. Click on the configure button of the line corresponding to the VirtualHub itself
  4. Click on the edit button of the Outgoing callbacks section


Click on the "configure" button on the first line


Click on the "edit" button of the "Outgoing callbacks" section


And select "Yocto-API callback".

You then only need to define the URL of the PHP script and, if need be, the user name and password to access this URL. Supported authentication methods are basic and digest. The second method is safer than the first one because it does not allow transfer of the password on the network.

Usage

From the programmer standpoint, the only difference is at the level of the yRegisterHub function call. Instead of using an IP address, you must use the callback string (or http://callback which is equivalent).


include("yocto_api.php");
yRegisterHub("callback");

The remainder of the code stays strictly identical. On the VirtualHub interface, at the bottom of the configuration window for the HTTP callback API , there is a button allowing you to test the call to the PHP script.

Be aware that the PHP script controlling the modules remotely through the HTTP callback API can be called only by the VirtualHub. Indeed, it requires the information posted by the VirtualHub to function. To code a web site which controls Yoctopuce modules interactively, you must create a user interface which stores in a file or in a database the actions to be performed on the Yoctopuce modules. These actions are then read and run by the control script.

Common issues

For the HTTP callback API to work, the PHP option allow_url_fopen must be set. Some web site hosts do not set it by default. The problem then manifests itself with the following error:

error: URL file-access is disabled in the server configuration

To set this option, you must create, in the repertory where the control PHP script is located, an .htaccess file containing the following line:
php_flag "allow_url_fopen" "On"
Depending on the security policies of the host, it is sometimes impossible to authorize this option at the root of the web site, or even to install PHP scripts receiving data from a POST HTTP. In this case, place the PHP script in a subdirectory.

Limitations

This method that allows you to go through NAT filters cheaply has nevertheless a price. Communications being initiated by the VirtualHub at a more or less regular interval, reaction time to an event is clearly longer than if the Yoctopuce modules were driven directly. You can configure the reaction time in the specific window of the VirtualHub, but it is at least of a few seconds in the best case.

The HTTP callback Yocto-API mode is currently available in PHP, EcmaScript (Node.JS) and Java only.

9.5. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software. The only way to prevent this is to implement one of the two error handling techniques described below.

The method recommended by most programming languages for unpredictable error handling is the use of exceptions. By default, it is the behavior of the Yoctopuce library. If an error happens while you try to access a module, the library throws an exception. In this case, there are three possibilities:

As this latest situation is not the most desirable, the Yoctopuce library offers another possibility for error handling, allowing you to create a robust program without needing to catch exceptions at every line of code. You simply need to call the YAPI.DisableExceptions() function to commute the library to a mode where exceptions for all the functions are systematically replaced by specific return values, which can be tested by the caller when necessary. For each function, the name of each return value in case of error is systematically documented in the library reference. The name always follows the same logic: a get_state() method returns a Y_STATE_INVALID value, a get_currentValue method returns a Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID value, and so on. In any case, the returned value is of the expected type and is not a null pointer which would risk crashing your program. At worst, if you display the value without testing it, it will be outside the expected bounds for the returned value. In the case of functions which do not normally return information, the return value is YAPI_SUCCESS if everything went well, and a different error code in case of failure.

When you work without exceptions, you can obtain an error code and an error message explaining the source of the error. You can request them from the object which returned the error, calling the errType() and errMessage() methods. Their returned values contain the same information as in the exceptions when they are active.

10. Using Yocto-Light with C++

C++ is not the simplest language to master. However, if you take care to limit yourself to its essential functionalities, this language can very well be used for short programs quickly coded, and it has the advantage of being easily ported from one operating system to another. Under Windows, all the examples and the project models are tested with Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Express, freely available on the Microsoft web site25. Under Mac OS X, all the examples and project models are tested with XCode 4, available on the App Store. Moreover, under Max OS X and under Linux, you can compile the examples using a command line with GCC using the provided GNUmakefile. In the same manner under Windows, a Makefile allows you to compile examples using a command line, fully knowing the compilation and linking arguments.

Yoctopuce C++ libraries26 are integrally provided as source files. A section of the low-level library is written in pure C, but you should not need to interact directly with it: everything was done to ensure the simplest possible interaction from C++. The library is naturally also available as binary files, so that you can link it directly if you prefer.

You will soon notice that the C++ API defines many functions which return objects. You do not need to deallocate these objects yourself, the API does it automatically at the end of the application.

In order to keep them simple, all the examples provided in this documentation are console applications. Naturally, the libraries function in a strictly identical manner if you integrate them in an application with a graphical interface. You will find in the last section of this chapter all the information needed to create a wholly new project linked with the Yoctopuce libraries.

10.1. Control of the LightSensor function

A few lines of code are enough to use a Yocto-Light. Here is the skeleton of a C++ code snipplet to use the LightSensor function.


#include "yocto_api.h"
#include "yocto_lightsensor.h"

[...]
String  errmsg;
YLightSensor *lightsensor;

// Get access to your device, connected locally on USB for instance
yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg);
lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");

// Hot-plug is easy: just check that the device is online
if(lightsensor->isOnline())
{
    // Use lightsensor->get_currentValue(), ...
}

Let's look at these lines in more details.

yocto_api.h et yocto_lightsensor.h

These two include files provide access to the functions allowing you to manage Yoctopuce modules. yocto_api.h must always be used, yocto_lightsensor.h is necessary to manage modules containing a light sensor, such as Yocto-Light.

yRegisterHub

The yRegisterHub function initializes the Yoctopuce API and indicates where the modules should be looked for. When used with the parameter "usb", it will use the modules locally connected to the computer running the library. If the initialization does not succeed, this function returns a value different from YAPI_SUCCESS and errmsg contains the error message.

yFindLightSensor

The yFindLightSensor function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can use logical names as well, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


YLightSensor *lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");
YLightSensor *lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction");
YLightSensor *lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyModule.lightSensor");
YLightSensor *lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyModule.MyFunction");
YLightSensor *lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyFunction");

yFindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by yFindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by yFindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

A real example

Launch your C++ environment and open the corresponding sample project provided in the directory Examples/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light of the Yoctopuce library. If you prefer to work with your favorite text editor, open the file main.cpp, and type make to build the example when you are done.

In this example, you will recognize the functions explained above, but this time used with all side materials needed to make it work nicely as a small demo.

#include "yocto_api.h"
#include "yocto_lightsensor.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <stdlib.h>

using namespace std;

static void usage(void)
{
  cout << "usage: demo <serial_number> " << endl;
  cout << "       demo <logical_name>" << endl;
  cout << "       demo any                 (use any discovered device)" << endl;
  u64 now = yGetTickCount();
  while (yGetTickCount() - now < 3000) {
    // wait 3 sec to show the message
  }
  exit(1);
}

int main(int argc, const char * argv[])
{
  string       errmsg;
  string       target;
  YLightSensor *sensor;

  if (argc < 2) {
    usage();
  }
  target = (string) argv[1];

  // Setup the API to use local USB devices
  if (yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg) != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
    cerr << "RegisterHub error: " << errmsg << endl;
    return 1;
  }

  if (target == "any") {
    sensor = yFirstLightSensor();
    if (sensor == NULL) {
      cout << "No module connected (check USB cable)" << endl;
      return 1;
    }
  } else {
    sensor = yFindLightSensor(target + ".lightSensor");
  }

  while(1) {
    if (!sensor->isOnline()) {
      cout << "Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)";
      break;
    }

    cout << "Current ambient light: " << sensor->get_currentValue() << " lx";
    cout << "  (press Ctrl-C to exit)" << endl;
    ySleep(1000, errmsg);
  };
  yFreeAPI();

  return 0;
}
 

10.2. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.

#include <iostream>
#include <stdlib.h>

#include "yocto_api.h"

using namespace std;

static void usage(const char *exe)
{
  cout << "usage: " << exe << " <serial or logical name> [ON/OFF]" << endl;
  exit(1);
}


int main(int argc, const char * argv[])
{
  string      errmsg;

  // Setup the API to use local USB devices
  if(yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg) != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
    cerr << "RegisterHub error: " << errmsg << endl;
    return 1;
  }

  if(argc < 2)
    usage(argv[0]);

  YModule *module = yFindModule(argv[1]);  // use serial or logical name

  if (module->isOnline()) {
    if (argc > 2) {
      if (string(argv[2]) == "ON")
        module->set_beacon(Y_BEACON_ON);
      else
        module->set_beacon(Y_BEACON_OFF);
    }
    cout << "serial:       " << module->get_serialNumber() << endl;
    cout << "logical name: " << module->get_logicalName() << endl;
    cout << "luminosity:   " << module->get_luminosity() << endl;
    cout << "beacon:       ";
    if (module->get_beacon() == Y_BEACON_ON)
      cout << "ON" << endl;
    else
      cout << "OFF" << endl;
    cout << "upTime:       " << module->get_upTime() / 1000 << " sec" << endl;
    cout << "USB current:  " << module->get_usbCurrent() << " mA" << endl;
    cout << "Logs:" << endl << module->get_lastLogs() << endl;
  } else {
    cout << argv[1] << " not connected (check identification and USB cable)"
         << endl;
  }
  yFreeAPI();
  return 0;
}
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

#include <iostream>
#include <stdlib.h>

#include "yocto_api.h"

using namespace std;

static void usage(const char *exe)
{
  cerr << "usage: " << exe << " <serial> <newLogicalName>" << endl;
  exit(1);
}

int main(int argc, const char * argv[])
{
  string      errmsg;

  // Setup the API to use local USB devices
  if(yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg) != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
    cerr << "RegisterHub error: " << errmsg << endl;
    return 1;
  }

  if(argc < 2)
    usage(argv[0]);

  YModule *module = yFindModule(argv[1]);  // use serial or logical name

  if (module->isOnline()) {
    if (argc >= 3) {
      string newname =  argv[2];
      if (!yCheckLogicalName(newname)) {
        cerr << "Invalid name (" << newname << ")" << endl;
        usage(argv[0]);
      }
      module->set_logicalName(newname);
      module->saveToFlash();
    }
    cout << "Current name: " << module->get_logicalName() << endl;
  } else {
    cout << argv[1] << " not connected (check identification and USB cable)"
         << endl;
  }
  yFreeAPI();
  return 0;
}
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not NULL. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

#include <iostream>

#include "yocto_api.h"

using namespace std;

int main(int argc, const char * argv[])
{
  string      errmsg;

  // Setup the API to use local USB devices
  if(YAPI::RegisterHub("usb", errmsg) != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
    cerr << "RegisterHub error: " << errmsg << endl;
    return 1;
  }

  cout << "Device list: " << endl;

  YModule *module = YModule::FirstModule();
  while (module != NULL) {
    cout << module->get_serialNumber() << " ";
    cout << module->get_productName()  << endl;
    module = module->nextModule();
  }
  yFreeAPI();
  return 0;
}
 

10.3. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software. The only way to prevent this is to implement one of the two error handling techniques described below.

The method recommended by most programming languages for unpredictable error handling is the use of exceptions. By default, it is the behavior of the Yoctopuce library. If an error happens while you try to access a module, the library throws an exception. In this case, there are three possibilities:

As this latest situation is not the most desirable, the Yoctopuce library offers another possibility for error handling, allowing you to create a robust program without needing to catch exceptions at every line of code. You simply need to call the YAPI.DisableExceptions() function to commute the library to a mode where exceptions for all the functions are systematically replaced by specific return values, which can be tested by the caller when necessary. For each function, the name of each return value in case of error is systematically documented in the library reference. The name always follows the same logic: a get_state() method returns a Y_STATE_INVALID value, a get_currentValue method returns a Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID value, and so on. In any case, the returned value is of the expected type and is not a null pointer which would risk crashing your program. At worst, if you display the value without testing it, it will be outside the expected bounds for the returned value. In the case of functions which do not normally return information, the return value is YAPI_SUCCESS if everything went well, and a different error code in case of failure.

When you work without exceptions, you can obtain an error code and an error message explaining the source of the error. You can request them from the object which returned the error, calling the errType() and errMessage() methods. Their returned values contain the same information as in the exceptions when they are active.

10.4. Integration variants for the C++ Yoctopuce library

Depending on your needs and on your preferences, you can integrate the library into your projects in several distinct manners. This section explains how to implement the different options.

Integration in source format

Integrating all the sources of the library into your projects has several advantages:

To integrate the source code, the easiest way is to simply include the Sources directory of your Yoctopuce library into your IncludePath, and to add all the files of this directory (including the sub-directory yapi) to your project.

For your project to build correctly, you need to link with your project the prerequisite system libraries, that is:

Integration as a static library

Integration of the Yoctopuce library as a static library is a simpler manner to build a small executable which uses Yoctopuce modules. You can quickly compile the program with a single command. You do not need to install a dynamic library specific to Yoctopuce, everything is in the executable.

To integrate the static Yoctopuce library to your project, you must include the Sources directory of the Yoctopuce library into your IncludePath, and add the sub-directory Binaries/... corresponding to your operating system into your libPath.

Then, for you project to build correctly, you need to link with your project the Yoctopuce library and the prerequisite system libraries:

Note, under Linux, if you wish to compile in command line with GCC, it is generally advisable to link system libraries as dynamic libraries, rather than as static ones. To mix static and dynamic libraries on the same command line, you must pass the following arguments:

gcc (...) -Wl,-Bstatic -lyocto-static -Wl,-Bdynamic -lm -lpthread -lusb-1.0 -lstdc++

Integration as a dynamic library

Integration of the Yoctopuce library as a dynamic library allows you to produce an executable smaller than with the two previous methods, and to possibly update this library, if a patch reveals itself necessary, without needing to recompile the source code of the application. On the other hand, it is an integration mode which systematically requires you to copy the dynamic library on the target machine where the application will run (yocto.dll for Windows, libyocto.so.1.0.1 for Mac OS X and Linux).

To integrate the dynamic Yoctopuce library to your project, you must include the Sources directory of the Yoctopuce library into your IncludePath, and add the sub-directory Binaries/... corresponding to your operating system into your LibPath.

Then, for you project to build correctly, you need to link with your project the dynamic Yoctopuce library and the prerequisite system libraries:

With GCC, the command line to compile is simply:

gcc (...) -lyocto -lm -lpthread -lusb-1.0 -lstdc++

11. Using Yocto-Light with Objective-C

Objective-C is language of choice for programming on Mac OS X, due to its integration with the Cocoa framework. In order to use the Objective-C library, you need XCode version 4.2 (earlier versions will not work), available freely when you run Lion. If you are still under Snow Leopard, you need to be registered as Apple developer to be able to download XCode 4.2. The Yoctopuce library is ARC compatible. You can therefore implement your projects either using the traditional retain / release method, or using the Automatic Reference Counting.

Yoctopuce Objective-C libraries27 are integrally provided as source files. A section of the low-level library is written in pure C, but you should not need to interact directly with it: everything was done to ensure the simplest possible interaction from Objective-C.

You will soon notice that the Objective-C API defines many functions which return objects. You do not need to deallocate these objects yourself, the API does it automatically at the end of the application.

In order to keep them simple, all the examples provided in this documentation are console applications. Naturally, the libraries function in a strictly identical manner if you integrate them in an application with a graphical interface. You can find on Yoctopuce blog a detailed example28 with video shots showing how to integrate the library into your projects.

11.1. Control of the LightSensor function

Launch Xcode 4.2 and open the corresponding sample project provided in the directory Examples/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light of the Yoctopuce library.

#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>
#import "yocto_api.h"
#import "yocto_lightsensor.h"

static void usage(void)
{
  NSLog(@"usage: demo <serial_number> ");
  NSLog(@"       demo <logical_name>");
  NSLog(@"       demo any                 (use any discovered device)");
  exit(1);
}

int main(int argc, const char * argv[])
{
  NSError *error;

  if (argc < 2) {
    usage();
  }
  @autoreleasepool {
    // Setup the API to use local USB devices
    if([YAPI RegisterHub:@"usb": &error] != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
      NSLog(@"RegisterHub error: %@", [error localizedDescription]);
      return 1;
    }
    NSString *target = [NSString stringWithUTF8String:argv[1]];
    YLightSensor *sensor;
    if ([target isEqualToString:@"any"]) {
      sensor = [YLightSensor FirstLightSensor];
      if (sensor == NULL) {
        NSLog(@"No module connected (check USB cable)");
        return 1;
      }
    } else {
      sensor = [YLightSensor FindLightSensor:[target stringByAppendingString:@".lightSensor"]];
    }
    while(1) {
      if(![sensor isOnline]) {
        NSLog(@"Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)\n");
        break;
      }

      NSLog(@"Current ambient light: %f lx\n", [sensor get_currentValue]);
      NSLog(@"  (press Ctrl-C to exit)\n");
      [YAPI Sleep:1000:NULL];
    }
    [YAPI FreeAPI];
  }
  return 0;
}
 

There are only a few really important lines in this example. We will look at them in details.

yocto_api.h et yocto_lightsensor.h

These two import files provide access to the functions allowing you to manage Yoctopuce modules. yocto_api.h must always be used, yocto_lightsensor.h is necessary to manage modules containing a light sensor, such as Yocto-Light.

[YAPI RegisterHub]

The [YAPI RegisterHub] function initializes the Yoctopuce API and indicates where the modules should be looked for. When used with the parameter @"usb", it will use the modules locally connected to the computer running the library. If the initialization does not succeed, this function returns a value different from YAPI_SUCCESS and errmsg contains the error message.

[LightSensor FindLightSensor]

The [LightSensor FindLightSensor] function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can use logical names as well, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


YLightSensor *lightsensor = [LightSensor FindLightSensor:@"LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor"];
YLightSensor *lightsensor = [LightSensor FindLightSensor:@"LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction"];
YLightSensor *lightsensor = [LightSensor FindLightSensor:@"MyModule.lightSensor"];
YLightSensor *lightsensor = [LightSensor FindLightSensor:@"MyModule.MyFunction"];
YLightSensor *lightsensor = [LightSensor FindLightSensor:@"MyFunction"];

[LightSensor FindLightSensor] returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline method of the object returned by [LightSensor FindLightSensor] allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

11.2. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.

#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>
#import "yocto_api.h"

static void usage(const char *exe)
{
  NSLog(@"usage: %s <serial or logical name> [ON/OFF]\n", exe);
  exit(1);
}


int main (int argc, const char * argv[])
{
  NSError *error;

  @autoreleasepool {
    // Setup the API to use local USB devices
    if([YAPI RegisterHub:@"usb": &error] != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
      NSLog(@"RegisterHub error: %@", [error localizedDescription]);
      return 1;
    }
    if(argc < 2)
      usage(argv[0]);
    NSString *serial_or_name = [NSString stringWithUTF8String:argv[1]];
    // use serial or logical name
    YModule *module = [YModule FindModule:serial_or_name];
    if ([module isOnline]) {
      if (argc > 2) {
        if (strcmp(argv[2], "ON") == 0)
          [module setBeacon:Y_BEACON_ON];
        else
          [module setBeacon:Y_BEACON_OFF];
      }
      NSLog(@"serial:       %@\n", [module serialNumber]);
      NSLog(@"logical name: %@\n", [module logicalName]);
      NSLog(@"luminosity:   %d\n", [module luminosity]);
      NSLog(@"beacon:       ");
      if ([module beacon] == Y_BEACON_ON)
        NSLog(@"ON\n");
      else
        NSLog(@"OFF\n");
      NSLog(@"upTime:       %ld sec\n", [module upTime] / 1000);
      NSLog(@"USB current:  %d mA\n",  [module usbCurrent]);
      NSLog(@"logs:  %@\n",  [module get_lastLogs]);
    } else {
      NSLog(@"%@ not connected (check identification and USB cable)\n",
            serial_or_name);
    }
    [YAPI FreeAPI];
  }
  return 0;
}
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type get_xxxx, and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the set_xxx: method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding set_xxx: function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the saveToFlash method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the revertFromFlash method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>
#import "yocto_api.h"

static void usage(const char *exe)
{
  NSLog(@"usage: %s <serial> <newLogicalName>\n", exe);
  exit(1);
}


int main (int argc, const char * argv[])
{
  NSError *error;

  @autoreleasepool {
    // Setup the API to use local USB devices
    if([YAPI RegisterHub:@"usb" :&error] != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
      NSLog(@"RegisterHub error: %@", [error localizedDescription]);
      return 1;
    }

    if(argc < 2)
      usage(argv[0]);

    NSString *serial_or_name = [NSString stringWithUTF8String:argv[1]];
    // use serial or logical name
    YModule *module = [YModule FindModule:serial_or_name];

    if (module.isOnline) {
      if (argc >= 3) {
        NSString *newname =  [NSString stringWithUTF8String:argv[2]];
        if (![YAPI CheckLogicalName:newname]) {
          NSLog(@"Invalid name (%@)\n", newname);
          usage(argv[0]);
        }
        module.logicalName = newname;
        [module saveToFlash];
      }
      NSLog(@"Current name: %@\n", module.logicalName);
    } else {
      NSLog(@"%@ not connected (check identification and USB cable)\n",
            serial_or_name);
    }
    [YAPI FreeAPI];
  }
  return 0;
}
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the saveToFlash function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not NULL. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>
#import "yocto_api.h"

int main (int argc, const char * argv[])
{
  NSError *error;

  @autoreleasepool {
    // Setup the API to use local USB devices
    if([YAPI RegisterHub:@"usb" :&error] != YAPI_SUCCESS) {
      NSLog(@"RegisterHub error: %@\n", [error localizedDescription]);
      return 1;
    }

    NSLog(@"Device list:\n");

    YModule *module = [YModule FirstModule];
    while (module != nil) {
      NSLog(@"%@ %@", module.serialNumber, module.productName);
      module = [module nextModule];
    }
    [YAPI FreeAPI];
  }
  return 0;
}
 

11.3. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software. The only way to prevent this is to implement one of the two error handling techniques described below.

The method recommended by most programming languages for unpredictable error handling is the use of exceptions. By default, it is the behavior of the Yoctopuce library. If an error happens while you try to access a module, the library throws an exception. In this case, there are three possibilities:

As this latest situation is not the most desirable, the Yoctopuce library offers another possibility for error handling, allowing you to create a robust program without needing to catch exceptions at every line of code. You simply need to call the YAPI.DisableExceptions() function to commute the library to a mode where exceptions for all the functions are systematically replaced by specific return values, which can be tested by the caller when necessary. For each function, the name of each return value in case of error is systematically documented in the library reference. The name always follows the same logic: a get_state() method returns a Y_STATE_INVALID value, a get_currentValue method returns a Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID value, and so on. In any case, the returned value is of the expected type and is not a null pointer which would risk crashing your program. At worst, if you display the value without testing it, it will be outside the expected bounds for the returned value. In the case of functions which do not normally return information, the return value is YAPI_SUCCESS if everything went well, and a different error code in case of failure.

When you work without exceptions, you can obtain an error code and an error message explaining the source of the error. You can request them from the object which returned the error, calling the errType() and errMessage() methods. Their returned values contain the same information as in the exceptions when they are active.

12. Using Yocto-Light with Visual Basic .NET

VisualBasic has long been the most favored entrance path to the Microsoft world. Therefore, we had to provide our library for this language, even if the new trend is shifting to C#. All the examples and the project models are tested with Microsoft VisualBasic 2010 Express, freely available on the Microsoft web site29.

12.1. Installation

Download the Visual Basic Yoctopuce library from the Yoctopuce web site30. There is no setup program, simply copy the content of the zip file into the directory of your choice. You mostly need the content of the Sources directory. The other directories contain the documentation and a few sample programs. All sample projects are Visual Basic 2010, projects, if you are using a previous version, you may have to recreate the projects structure from scratch.

12.2. Using the Yoctopuce API in a Visual Basic project

The Visual Basic.NET Yoctopuce library is composed of a DLL and of source files in Visual Basic. The DLL is not a .NET DLL, but a classic DLL, written in C, which manages the low level communications with the modules31. The source files in Visual Basic manage the high level part of the API. Therefore, your need both this DLL and the .vb files of the sources directory to create a project managing Yoctopuce modules.

Configuring a Visual Basic project

The following indications are provided for Visual Studio Express 2010, but the process is similar for other versions. Start by creating your project. Then, on the Solution Explorer panel, right click on your project, and select "Add" and then "Add an existing item".

A file selection window opens. Select the yocto_api.vb file and the files corresponding to the functions of the Yoctopuce modules that your project is going to manage. If in doubt, select all the files.

You then have the choice between simply adding these files to your project, or to add them as links (the Add button is in fact a scroll-down menu). In the first case, Visual Studio copies the selected files into your project. In the second case, Visual Studio simply keeps a link on the original files. We recommend you to use links, which makes updates of the library much easier.

Then add in the same manner the yapi.dll DLL, located in the Sources/dll directory32. Then, from the Solution Explorer window, right click on the DLL, select Properties and in the Properties panel, set the Copy to output folder to always. You are now ready to use your Yoctopuce modules from Visual Studio.

In order to keep them simple, all the examples provided in this documentation are console applications. Naturally, the libraries function in a strictly identical manner if you integrate them in an application with a graphical interface.

12.3. Control of the LightSensor function

A few lines of code are enough to use a Yocto-Light. Here is the skeleton of a Visual Basic code snipplet to use the LightSensor function.


[...]
Dim errmsg As String errmsg
Dim lightsensor As YLightSensor
 
REM Get access to your device, connected locally on USB for instance
yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg)
lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor")

REM Hot-plug is easy: just check that the device is online
If (lightsensor.isOnline()) Then
   REM Use lightsensor.get_currentValue(), ...
End If

Let's look at these lines in more details.

yRegisterHub

The yRegisterHub function initializes the Yoctopuce API and indicates where the modules should be looked for. When used with the parameter "usb", it will use the modules locally connected to the computer running the library. If the initialization does not succeed, this function returns a value different from YAPI_SUCCESS and errmsg contains the error message.

yFindLightSensor

The yFindLightSensor function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can use logical names as well, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor")
lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction")
lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyModule.lightSensor")
lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyModule.MyFunction")
lightsensor = yFindLightSensor("MyFunction")

yFindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by yFindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by yFindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

A real example

Launch Microsoft VisualBasic and open the corresponding sample project provided in the directory Examples/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light of the Yoctopuce library.

In this example, you will recognize the functions explained above, but this time used with all side materials needed to make it work nicely as a small demo.

Module Module1

  Private Sub Usage()
    Dim execname = System.AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName
    Console.WriteLine("Usage:")
    Console.WriteLine(execname + " <serial_number>")
    Console.WriteLine(execname + " <logical_name>")
    Console.WriteLine(execname + " any  ")
    System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(2500)

    End
  End Sub

  Sub Main()
    Dim argv() As String = System.Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()
    Dim errmsg As String = ""
    Dim target As String
    Dim sensor As YLightSensor

    If argv.Length < 2 Then Usage()

    target = argv(1)

    REM Setup the API to use local USB devices
    If (yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg) <> YAPI_SUCCESS) Then
      Console.WriteLine("RegisterHub error: " + errmsg)
      End
    End If

    If target = "any" Then
      sensor = yFirstLightSensor()
      If sensor Is Nothing Then
        Console.WriteLine("No module connected (check USB cable) ")
        End
      End If
    Else
      sensor = yFindLightSensor(target + ".lightSensor")
    End If

    While (True)
      If Not (sensor.isOnline()) Then
        Console.WriteLine("Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)")
        End
      End If
      Console.WriteLine("Current ambient light: " + Str(sensor.get_currentValue()) _
                        + " lx")
      Console.WriteLine("  (press Ctrl-C to exit)")
      ySleep(1000, errmsg)

    End While
    yFreeAPI()

  End Sub

End Module
 

12.4. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.


Imports System.IO
Imports System.Environment

Module Module1

  Sub usage()
    Console.WriteLine("usage: demo <serial or logical name> [ON/OFF]")
    End
  End Sub

  Sub Main()
    Dim argv() As String = System.Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()
    Dim errmsg As String = ""
    Dim m As ymodule

    If (yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg) <> YAPI_SUCCESS) Then
      Console.WriteLine("RegisterHub error:" + errmsg)
      End
    End If

    If argv.Length < 2 Then usage()

    m = yFindModule(argv(1)) REM use serial or logical name
    If (m.isOnline()) Then
      If argv.Length > 2 Then
        If argv(2) = "ON" Then m.set_beacon(Y_BEACON_ON)
        If argv(2) = "OFF" Then m.set_beacon(Y_BEACON_OFF)
      End If
      Console.WriteLine("serial:       " + m.get_serialNumber())
      Console.WriteLine("logical name: " + m.get_logicalName())
      Console.WriteLine("luminosity:   " + Str(m.get_luminosity()))
      Console.Write("beacon:       ")
      If (m.get_beacon() = Y_BEACON_ON) Then
        Console.WriteLine("ON")
      Else
        Console.WriteLine("OFF")
      End If
      Console.WriteLine("upTime:       " + Str(m.get_upTime() / 1000) + " sec")
      Console.WriteLine("USB current:  " + Str(m.get_usbCurrent()) + " mA")
      Console.WriteLine("Logs:")
      Console.WriteLine(m.get_lastLogs())
    Else
      Console.WriteLine(argv(1) + " not connected (check identification and USB cable)")
    End If
    yFreeAPI()
  End Sub

End Module
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

Module Module1


  Sub usage()

    Console.WriteLine("usage: demo <serial or logical name> <new logical name>")
    End
  End Sub

  Sub Main()
    Dim argv() As String = System.Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()
    Dim errmsg As String = ""
    Dim newname As String
    Dim m As YModule

    If (argv.Length <> 3) Then usage()

    REM Setup the API to use local USB devices
    If yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg) <> YAPI_SUCCESS Then
      Console.WriteLine("RegisterHub error: " + errmsg)
      End
    End If

    m = yFindModule(argv(1)) REM use serial or logical name
    If m.isOnline() Then
      newname = argv(2)
      If (Not yCheckLogicalName(newname)) Then
        Console.WriteLine("Invalid name (" + newname + ")")
        End
      End If
      m.set_logicalName(newname)
      m.saveToFlash() REM do not forget this
      Console.Write("Module: serial= " + m.get_serialNumber)
      Console.Write(" / name= " + m.get_logicalName())
    Else
      Console.Write("not connected (check identification and USB cable")
    End If
    yFreeAPI()

  End Sub

End Module
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not Nothing. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

Module Module1

  Sub Main()
    Dim M As ymodule
    Dim errmsg As String = ""

    REM Setup the API to use local USB devices
    If yRegisterHub("usb", errmsg) <> YAPI_SUCCESS Then
      Console.WriteLine("RegisterHub error: " + errmsg)
      End
    End If

    Console.WriteLine("Device list")
    M = yFirstModule()
    While M IsNot Nothing
      Console.WriteLine(M.get_serialNumber() + " (" + M.get_productName() + ")")
      M = M.nextModule()
    End While
    yFreeAPI()
  End Sub

End Module
 

12.5. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software. The only way to prevent this is to implement one of the two error handling techniques described below.

The method recommended by most programming languages for unpredictable error handling is the use of exceptions. By default, it is the behavior of the Yoctopuce library. If an error happens while you try to access a module, the library throws an exception. In this case, there are three possibilities:

As this latest situation is not the most desirable, the Yoctopuce library offers another possibility for error handling, allowing you to create a robust program without needing to catch exceptions at every line of code. You simply need to call the YAPI.DisableExceptions() function to commute the library to a mode where exceptions for all the functions are systematically replaced by specific return values, which can be tested by the caller when necessary. For each function, the name of each return value in case of error is systematically documented in the library reference. The name always follows the same logic: a get_state() method returns a Y_STATE_INVALID value, a get_currentValue method returns a Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID value, and so on. In any case, the returned value is of the expected type and is not a null pointer which would risk crashing your program. At worst, if you display the value without testing it, it will be outside the expected bounds for the returned value. In the case of functions which do not normally return information, the return value is YAPI_SUCCESS if everything went well, and a different error code in case of failure.

When you work without exceptions, you can obtain an error code and an error message explaining the source of the error. You can request them from the object which returned the error, calling the errType() and errMessage() methods. Their returned values contain the same information as in the exceptions when they are active.

13. Using Yocto-Light with C#

C# (pronounced C-Sharp) is an object-oriented programming language promoted by Microsoft, it is somewhat similar to Java. Like Visual-Basic and Delphi, it allows you to create Windows applications quite easily. All the examples and the project models are tested with Microsoft C# 2010 Express, freely available on the Microsoft web site33.

13.1. Installation

Download the Visual C# Yoctopuce library from the Yoctopuce web site34. There is no setup program, simply copy the content of the zip file into the directory of your choice. You mostly need the content of the Sources directory. The other directories contain the documentation and a few sample programs. All sample projects are Visual C# 2010, projects, if you are using a previous version, you may have to recreate the projects structure from scratch.

13.2. Using the Yoctopuce API in a Visual C# project

The Visual C#.NET Yoctopuce library is composed of a DLL and of source files in Visual C#. The DLL is not a .NET DLL, but a classic DLL, written in C, which manages the low level communications with the modules35. The source files in Visual C# manage the high level part of the API. Therefore, your need both this DLL and the .cs files of the sources directory to create a project managing Yoctopuce modules.

Configuring a Visual C# project

The following indications are provided for Visual Studio Express 2010, but the process is similar for other versions. Start by creating your project. Then, on the Solution Explorer panel, right click on your project, and select "Add" and then "Add an existing item".

A file selection window opens. Select the yocto_api.cs file and the files corresponding to the functions of the Yoctopuce modules that your project is going to manage. If in doubt, select all the files.

You then have the choice between simply adding these files to your project, or to add them as links (the Add button is in fact a scroll-down menu). In the first case, Visual Studio copies the selected files into your project. In the second case, Visual Studio simply keeps a link on the original files. We recommend you to use links, which makes updates of the library much easier.

Then add in the same manner the yapi.dll DLL, located in the Sources/dll directory36. Then, from the Solution Explorer window, right click on the DLL, select Properties and in the Properties panel, set the Copy to output folder to always. You are now ready to use your Yoctopuce modules from Visual Studio.

In order to keep them simple, all the examples provided in this documentation are console applications. Naturally, the libraries function in a strictly identical manner if you integrate them in an application with a graphical interface.

13.3. Control of the LightSensor function

A few lines of code are enough to use a Yocto-Light. Here is the skeleton of a C# code snipplet to use the LightSensor function.


[...]
string errmsg ="";
YLightSensor lightsensor;
 
// Get access to your device, connected locally on USB for instance
YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", errmsg);
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");

// Hot-plug is easy: just check that the device is online
if (lightsensor.isOnline())
 {  // Use lightsensor.get_currentValue(); ...
 }

Let's look at these lines in more details.

YAPI.RegisterHub

The YAPI.RegisterHub function initializes the Yoctopuce API and indicates where the modules should be looked for. When used with the parameter "usb", it will use the modules locally connected to the computer running the library. If the initialization does not succeed, this function returns a value different from YAPI.SUCCESS and errmsg contains the error message.

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor

The YLightSensor.FindLightSensor function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can use logical names as well, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction");
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyModule.lightSensor");
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyModule.MyFunction");
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyFunction");

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

A real example

Launch Microsoft Visual C# and open the corresponding sample project provided in the directory Examples/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light of the Yoctopuce library.

In this example, you will recognize the functions explained above, but this time used with all side materials needed to make it work nicely as a small demo.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
  class Program
  {
    static void usage()
    {
      string execname = System.AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName;
      Console.WriteLine(execname + " <serial_number>");
      Console.WriteLine(execname + " <logical_name>");
      Console.WriteLine(execname + " any  ");
      Environment.Exit(0);
    }

    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
      string errmsg = "";
      string target;
      YLightSensor sensor;

      if (args.Length < 1) usage();
      target = args[0].ToUpper();

      // Setup the API to use local USB devices
      if (YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", ref errmsg) != YAPI.SUCCESS) {
        Console.WriteLine("RegisterHub error: " + errmsg);
        Environment.Exit(0);
      }

      if (target == "ANY") {
        sensor = YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor();
        if (sensor == null) {
          Console.WriteLine("No module connected (check USB cable) ");
          Environment.Exit(0);
        }
      } else sensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor(target + ".lightSensor");

      if (!sensor.isOnline()) {
        Console.WriteLine("Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)");
        Environment.Exit(0);
      }
      while (sensor.isOnline()) {
        Console.WriteLine("Current ambient light: " + sensor.get_currentValue().ToString()
                          + " lx");
        Console.WriteLine("  (press Ctrl-C to exit)");
        YAPI.Sleep(1000, ref errmsg);
      }
      YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }
  }
}

13.4. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;


namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
  class Program
  {
    static void usage()
    {
      string execname = System.AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName;
      Console.WriteLine("Usage:");
      Console.WriteLine(execname + " <serial or logical name> [ON/OFF]");
      System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(2500);
      Environment.Exit(0);
    }

    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
      YModule m;
      string errmsg = "";

      if (YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", ref errmsg) !=  YAPI.SUCCESS) {
        Console.WriteLine("RegisterHub error: " + errmsg);
        Environment.Exit(0);
      }


      if (args.Length < 1)  usage();

      m = YModule.FindModule(args[0]); // use serial or logical name

      if (m.isOnline()) {
        if (args.Length >= 2) {
          if (args[1].ToUpper() == "ON") {
            m.set_beacon(YModule.BEACON_ON);
          }
          if (args[1].ToUpper() == "OFF") {
            m.set_beacon(YModule.BEACON_OFF);
          }
        }

        Console.WriteLine("serial:       " + m.get_serialNumber());
        Console.WriteLine("logical name: " + m.get_logicalName());
        Console.WriteLine("luminosity:   " + m.get_luminosity().ToString());
        Console.Write("beacon:       ");
        if (m.get_beacon() == YModule.BEACON_ON)
          Console.WriteLine("ON");
        else
          Console.WriteLine("OFF");
        Console.WriteLine("upTime:       " + (m.get_upTime() / 1000 ).ToString() + " sec");
        Console.WriteLine("USB current:  " + m.get_usbCurrent().ToString() + " mA");
        Console.WriteLine("Logs:\r\n" + m.get_lastLogs());

      } else {
        Console.WriteLine(args[0] + " not connected (check identification and USB cable)");
      }
      YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }
  }
}
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type YModule.get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the YModule.set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding YModule.set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the YModule.saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the YModule.revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
  class Program
  {
    static void usage()
    {
      string execname = System.AppDomain.CurrentDomain.FriendlyName;
      Console.WriteLine("Usage:");
      Console.WriteLine("usage: demo <serial or logical name> <new logical name>");
      System.Threading.Thread.Sleep(2500);
      Environment.Exit(0);
    }

    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
      YModule m;
      string errmsg = "";
      string newname;

      if (args.Length != 2) usage();

      if (YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", ref errmsg) !=  YAPI.SUCCESS) {
        Console.WriteLine("RegisterHub error: " + errmsg);
        Environment.Exit(0);
      }

      m = YModule.FindModule(args[0]); // use serial or logical name

      if (m.isOnline()) {
        newname = args[1];
        if (!YAPI.CheckLogicalName(newname)) {
          Console.WriteLine("Invalid name (" + newname + ")");
          Environment.Exit(0);
        }

        m.set_logicalName(newname);
        m.saveToFlash(); // do not forget this

        Console.Write("Module: serial= " + m.get_serialNumber());
        Console.WriteLine(" / name= " + m.get_logicalName());
      } else {
        Console.Write("not connected (check identification and USB cable");
      }
      YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }
  }
}
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the YModule.saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the YModule.yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not null. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;

namespace ConsoleApplication1
{
  class Program
  {
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
      YModule m;
      string errmsg = "";

      if (YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", ref errmsg) !=  YAPI.SUCCESS) {
        Console.WriteLine("RegisterHub error: " + errmsg);
        Environment.Exit(0);
      }

      Console.WriteLine("Device list");
      m = YModule.FirstModule();
      while (m != null) {
        Console.WriteLine(m.get_serialNumber() + " (" + m.get_productName() + ")");
        m = m.nextModule();
      }
      YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }
  }
}
 

13.5. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software. The only way to prevent this is to implement one of the two error handling techniques described below.

The method recommended by most programming languages for unpredictable error handling is the use of exceptions. By default, it is the behavior of the Yoctopuce library. If an error happens while you try to access a module, the library throws an exception. In this case, there are three possibilities:

As this latest situation is not the most desirable, the Yoctopuce library offers another possibility for error handling, allowing you to create a robust program without needing to catch exceptions at every line of code. You simply need to call the YAPI.DisableExceptions() function to commute the library to a mode where exceptions for all the functions are systematically replaced by specific return values, which can be tested by the caller when necessary. For each function, the name of each return value in case of error is systematically documented in the library reference. The name always follows the same logic: a get_state() method returns a Y_STATE_INVALID value, a get_currentValue method returns a Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID value, and so on. In any case, the returned value is of the expected type and is not a null pointer which would risk crashing your program. At worst, if you display the value without testing it, it will be outside the expected bounds for the returned value. In the case of functions which do not normally return information, the return value is YAPI_SUCCESS if everything went well, and a different error code in case of failure.

When you work without exceptions, you can obtain an error code and an error message explaining the source of the error. You can request them from the object which returned the error, calling the errType() and errMessage() methods. Their returned values contain the same information as in the exceptions when they are active.

14. Using Yocto-Light with Delphi

Delphi is a descendent of Turbo-Pascal. Originally, Delphi was produced by Borland, Embarcadero now edits it. The strength of this language resides in its ease of use, as anyone with some notions of the Pascal language can develop a Windows application in next to no time. Its only disadvantage is to cost something37.

Delphi libraries are provided not as VCL components, but directly as source files. These files are compatible with most Delphi versions. 38

To keep them simple, all the examples provided in this documentation are console applications. Obviously, the libraries work in a strictly identical way with VCL applications.

You will soon notice that the Delphi API defines many functions which return objects. You do not need to deallocate these objects yourself, the API does it automatically at the end of the application.

14.1. Preparation

Go to the Yoctopuce web site and download the Yoctopuce Delphi libraries39. Uncompress everything in a directory of your choice, add the subdirectory sources in the list of directories of Delphi libraries.40

By default, the Yoctopuce Delphi library uses the yapi.dll DLL, all the applications you will create with Delphi must have access to this DLL. The simplest way to ensure this is to make sure yapi.dll is located in the same directory as the executable file of your application.

14.2. Control of the LightSensor function

Launch your Delphi environment, copy the yapi.dll DLL in a directory, create a new console application in the same directory, and copy-paste the piece of code below:

program helloworld;
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
uses
  SysUtils,
  Windows,
  yocto_api,
  yocto_lightSensor;

Procedure  Usage();
  var
   exe : string;
  begin
    exe:= ExtractFileName(paramstr(0));
    WriteLn(exe+' <serial_number>');
    WriteLn(exe+' <logical_name>');
    WriteLn(exe+' any');
    sleep(2500);
    halt;
  End;

var
  sensor : TYLightSensor;
  errmsg : string;
  done   : boolean;

begin

  if (paramcount<1) then usage();

  // Setup the API to use local USB devices
  if yRegisterHub('usb', errmsg)<>YAPI_SUCCESS then
  begin
    Write('RegisterHub error: '+errmsg);
    exit;
  end;

  if paramstr(1)='any' then
    begin
      // search for the first available light sensor
      sensor := yFirstLightSensor();
      if sensor=nil then
         begin
           writeln('No module connected (check USB cable)');
           halt;
         end
       end
   else // or use the one specified on command line
   sensor:= YFindLightSensor(paramstr(1)+'.lightSensor');

   // lets poll the sensor
  done := false;
  repeat
    if (sensor.isOnline()) then
     begin
       Write('Current ambient light: '+FloatToStr(sensor.get_currentValue())+' lx');
       Writeln('   (press Ctrl-C to exit)');
       YSleep(1000,errmsg);
     end
    else
     begin
       Writeln('Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)');
       done := true;
     end;
  until done;
  yFreeAPI();

end.
 

There are only a few really important lines in this sample example. We will look at them in details.

yocto_api and yocto_lightsensor

These two units provide access to the functions allowing you to manage Yoctopuce modules. yocto_api must always be used, yocto_lightsensor is necessary to manage modules containing a light sensor, such as Yocto-Light.

yRegisterHub

The yRegisterHub function initializes the Yoctopuce API and specifies where the modules should be looked for. When used with the parameter 'usb', it will use the modules locally connected to the computer running the library. If the initialization does not succeed, this function returns a value different from YAPI_SUCCESS and errmsg contains the error message.

yFindLightSensor

The yFindLightSensor function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can also use logical names, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


lightsensor := yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");
lightsensor := yFindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction");
lightsensor := yFindLightSensor("MyModule.lightSensor");
lightsensor := yFindLightSensor("MyModule.MyFunction");
lightsensor := yFindLightSensor("MyFunction");

yFindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by yFindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by yFindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

14.3. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.

program modulecontrol;
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
uses
  SysUtils,
  yocto_api;

const
  serial = 'LIGHTMK1-123456'; // use serial number or logical name

procedure refresh(module:Tymodule) ;
  begin
    if (module.isOnline())  then
     begin
       Writeln('');
       Writeln('Serial       : ' + module.get_serialNumber());
       Writeln('Logical name : ' + module.get_logicalName());
       Writeln('Luminosity   : ' + intToStr(module.get_luminosity()));
       Write('Beacon    :');
       if  (module.get_beacon()=Y_BEACON_ON) then Writeln('on')
                                             else Writeln('off');
       Writeln('uptime       : ' + intToStr(module.get_upTime() div 1000)+'s');
       Writeln('USB current  : ' + intToStr(module.get_usbCurrent())+'mA');
       Writeln('Logs         : ');
       Writeln(module.get_lastlogs());
       Writeln('');
       Writeln('r : refresh / b:beacon ON / space : beacon off');
     end
    else Writeln('Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)');
  end;


procedure beacon(module:Tymodule;state:integer);
  begin
    module.set_beacon(state);
    refresh(module);
  end;

var
  module : TYModule;
  c      : char;
  errmsg : string;

begin
  // Setup the API to use local USB devices
  if yRegisterHub('usb', errmsg)<>YAPI_SUCCESS then
  begin
    Write('RegisterHub error: '+errmsg);
    exit;
  end;

  module := yFindModule(serial);
  refresh(module);

  repeat
    read(c);
    case c of
     'r': refresh(module);
     'b': beacon(module,Y_BEACON_ON);
     ' ': beacon(module,Y_BEACON_OFF);
    end;
  until  c = 'x';
  yFreeAPI();
end.

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

program savesettings;
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
uses
  SysUtils,
  yocto_api;

const
  serial = 'LIGHTMK1-123456'; // use serial number or logical name

var
  module  : TYModule;
  errmsg  : string;
  newname : string;

begin
  // Setup the API to use local USB devices
  if yRegisterHub('usb', errmsg)<>YAPI_SUCCESS then
  begin
    Write('RegisterHub error: '+errmsg);
    exit;
  end;

  module := yFindModule(serial);
  if (not(module.isOnline)) then
   begin
     writeln('Module not connected (check identification and USB cable)');
     exit;
   end;

  Writeln('Current logical name : '+module.get_logicalName());
  Write('Enter new name : ');
  Readln(newname);
  if (not(yCheckLogicalName(newname))) then
   begin
     Writeln('invalid logical name');
     exit;
   end;
  module.set_logicalName(newname);
  module.saveToFlash();
  yFreeAPI();
  Writeln('logical name is now : '+module.get_logicalName());
end.
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not nil. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

program inventory;
{$APPTYPE CONSOLE}
uses
  SysUtils,
  yocto_api;

var
  module : TYModule;
  errmsg : string;

begin
  // Setup the API to use local USB devices
  if yRegisterHub('usb', errmsg)<>YAPI_SUCCESS then
  begin
    Write('RegisterHub error: '+errmsg);
    exit;
  end;

  Writeln('Device list');

  module := yFirstModule();
  while module<>nil  do
   begin
     Writeln( module.get_serialNumber()+' ('+module.get_productName()+')');
     module := module.nextModule();
   end;
  yFreeAPI();

end.

14.4. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software. The only way to prevent this is to implement one of the two error handling techniques described below.

The method recommended by most programming languages for unpredictable error handling is the use of exceptions. By default, it is the behavior of the Yoctopuce library. If an error happens while you try to access a module, the library throws an exception. In this case, there are three possibilities:

As this latest situation is not the most desirable, the Yoctopuce library offers another possibility for error handling, allowing you to create a robust program without needing to catch exceptions at every line of code. You simply need to call the YAPI.DisableExceptions() function to commute the library to a mode where exceptions for all the functions are systematically replaced by specific return values, which can be tested by the caller when necessary. For each function, the name of each return value in case of error is systematically documented in the library reference. The name always follows the same logic: a get_state() method returns a Y_STATE_INVALID value, a get_currentValue method returns a Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID value, and so on. In any case, the returned value is of the expected type and is not a null pointer which would risk crashing your program. At worst, if you display the value without testing it, it will be outside the expected bounds for the returned value. In the case of functions which do not normally return information, the return value is YAPI_SUCCESS if everything went well, and a different error code in case of failure.

When you work without exceptions, you can obtain an error code and an error message explaining the source of the error. You can request them from the object which returned the error, calling the errType() and errMessage() methods. Their returned values contain the same information as in the exceptions when they are active.

15. Using the Yocto-Light with Python

Python is an interpreted object oriented language developed by Guido van Rossum. Among its advantages is the fact that it is free, and the fact that it is available for most platforms, Windows as well as UNIX. It is an ideal language to write small scripts on a napkin. The Yoctopuce library is compatible with Python 2.6+ and 3+. It works under Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux, Intel as well as ARM. The library was tested with Python 2.6 and Python 3.2. Python interpreters are available on the Python web site41.

15.1. Source files

The Yoctopuce library classes42 for Python that you will use are provided as source files. Copy all the content of the Sources directory in the directory of your choice and add this directory to the PYTHONPATH environment variable. If you use an IDE to program in Python, refer to its documentation to configure it so that it automatically finds the API source files.

15.2. Dynamic library

A section of the low-level library is written in C, but you should not need to interact directly with it: it is provided as a DLL under Windows, as a .so files under UNIX, and as a .dylib file under Mac OS X. Everything was done to ensure the simplest possible interaction from Python: the distinct versions of the dynamic library corresponding to the distinct operating systems and architectures are stored in the cdll directory. The API automatically loads the correct file during its initialization. You should not have to worry about it.

If you ever need to recompile the dynamic library, its complete source code is located in the Yoctopuce C++ library.

In order to keep them simple, all the examples provided in this documentation are console applications. Naturally, the libraries function in a strictly identical manner if you integrate them in an application with a graphical interface.

15.3. Control of the LightSensor function

A few lines of code are enough to use a Yocto-Light. Here is the skeleton of a Python code snipplet to use the LightSensor function.


[...]

errmsg=YRefParam()
#Get access to your device, connected locally on USB for instance
YAPI.RegisterHub("usb",errmsg)
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor")

# Hot-plug is easy: just check that the device is online
if lightsensor.isOnline():
    #Use lightsensor.get_currentValue()
    ...
   
[...]    

Let's look at these lines in more details.

YAPI.RegisterHub

The yAPI.RegisterHub function initializes the Yoctopuce API and indicates where the modules should be looked for. When used with the parameter "usb", it will use the modules locally connected to the computer running the library. If the initialization does not succeed, this function returns a value different from YAPI.SUCCESS and errmsg contains the error message.

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor

The YLightSensor.FindLightSensor function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can use logical names as well, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyModule.lightSensor")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyModule.MyFunction")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyFunction")

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

A real example

Launch Python and open the corresponding sample script provided in the directory Examples/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light of the Yoctopuce library.

In this example, you will recognize the functions explained above, but this time used with all side materials needed to make it work nicely as a small demo.

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import os, sys

from yocto_api import *
from yocto_lightsensor import *


def usage():
    scriptname = os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])
    print("Usage:")
    print(scriptname + ' <serial_number>')
    print(scriptname + ' <logical_name>')
    print(scriptname + ' any  ')
    sys.exit()


def die(msg):
    sys.exit(msg + ' (check USB cable)')


errmsg = YRefParam()

if len(sys.argv) < 2:
    usage()

target = sys.argv[1]

# Setup the API to use local USB devices
if YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", errmsg) != YAPI.SUCCESS:
    sys.exit("init error" + errmsg.value)

if target == 'any':
    # retreive any Light sensor
    sensor = YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor()
    if sensor is None:
        die('No module connected')
else:
    sensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor(target + '.lightSensor')

if not (sensor.isOnline()):
    die('device not connected')

while sensor.isOnline():
    print("Light :  " + str(int(sensor.get_currentValue())) + " lx (Ctrl-C to stop)")
    YAPI.Sleep(1000)
YAPI.FreeAPI()
 

15.4. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import os, sys

from yocto_api import *


def usage():
    sys.exit("usage: demo <serial or logical name> [ON/OFF]")


errmsg = YRefParam()
if YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", errmsg) != YAPI.SUCCESS:
    sys.exit("RegisterHub error: " + str(errmsg))

if len(sys.argv) < 2:
    usage()

m = YModule.FindModule(sys.argv[1])  # # use serial or logical name

if m.isOnline():
    if len(sys.argv) > 2:
        if sys.argv[2].upper() == "ON":
            m.set_beacon(YModule.BEACON_ON)
        if sys.argv[2].upper() == "OFF":
            m.set_beacon(YModule.BEACON_OFF)

    print("serial:       " + m.get_serialNumber())
    print("logical name: " + m.get_logicalName())
    print("luminosity:   " + str(m.get_luminosity()))
    if m.get_beacon() == YModule.BEACON_ON:
        print("beacon:       ON")
    else:
        print("beacon:       OFF")
    print("upTime:       " + str(m.get_upTime() / 1000) + " sec")
    print("USB current:  " + str(m.get_usbCurrent()) + " mA")
    print("logs:\n" + m.get_lastLogs())
else:
    print(sys.argv[1] + " not connected (check identification and USB cable)")
YAPI.FreeAPI()
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type YModule.get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the YModule.set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding YModule.set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the YModule.saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the YModule.revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import os, sys

from yocto_api import *


def usage():
    sys.exit("usage: demo <serial or logical name> <new logical name>")


if len(sys.argv) != 3:
    usage()

errmsg = YRefParam()
if YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", errmsg) != YAPI.SUCCESS:
    sys.exit("RegisterHub error: " + str(errmsg))

m = YModule.FindModule(sys.argv[1])  # use serial or logical name
if m.isOnline():
    newname = sys.argv[2]
    if not YAPI.CheckLogicalName(newname):
        sys.exit("Invalid name (" + newname + ")")
    m.set_logicalName(newname)
    m.saveToFlash()  # do not forget this
    print("Module: serial= " + m.get_serialNumber() + " / name= " + m.get_logicalName())
else:
    sys.exit("not connected (check identification and USB cable")
YAPI.FreeAPI()

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the YModule.saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the YModule.yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not null. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import os, sys


from yocto_api import *

errmsg = YRefParam()

# Setup the API to use local USB devices
if YAPI.RegisterHub("usb", errmsg) != YAPI.SUCCESS:
    sys.exit("init error" + str(errmsg))

print('Device list')

module = YModule.FirstModule()
while module is not None:
    print(module.get_serialNumber() + ' (' + module.get_productName() + ')')
    module = module.nextModule()
YAPI.FreeAPI()

15.5. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software. The only way to prevent this is to implement one of the two error handling techniques described below.

The method recommended by most programming languages for unpredictable error handling is the use of exceptions. By default, it is the behavior of the Yoctopuce library. If an error happens while you try to access a module, the library throws an exception. In this case, there are three possibilities:

As this latest situation is not the most desirable, the Yoctopuce library offers another possibility for error handling, allowing you to create a robust program without needing to catch exceptions at every line of code. You simply need to call the YAPI.DisableExceptions() function to commute the library to a mode where exceptions for all the functions are systematically replaced by specific return values, which can be tested by the caller when necessary. For each function, the name of each return value in case of error is systematically documented in the library reference. The name always follows the same logic: a get_state() method returns a Y_STATE_INVALID value, a get_currentValue method returns a Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID value, and so on. In any case, the returned value is of the expected type and is not a null pointer which would risk crashing your program. At worst, if you display the value without testing it, it will be outside the expected bounds for the returned value. In the case of functions which do not normally return information, the return value is YAPI_SUCCESS if everything went well, and a different error code in case of failure.

When you work without exceptions, you can obtain an error code and an error message explaining the source of the error. You can request them from the object which returned the error, calling the errType() and errMessage() methods. Their returned values contain the same information as in the exceptions when they are active.

16. Using the Yocto-Light with Java

Java is an object oriented language created by Sun Microsystem. Beside being free, its main strength is its portability. Unfortunately, this portability has an excruciating price. In Java, hardware abstraction is so high that it is almost impossible to work directly with the hardware. Therefore, the Yoctopuce API does not support native mode in regular Java. The Java API needs a Virtual Hub to communicate with Yoctopuce devices.

16.1. Getting ready

Go to the Yoctopuce web site and download the following items:

The library is available as source files as well as a jar file. Decompress the library files in a folder of your choice, connect your modules, run the VirtualHub software, and you are ready to start your first tests. You do not need to install any driver.

In order to keep them simple, all the examples provided in this documentation are console applications. Naturally, the libraries function in a strictly identical manner if you integrate them in an application with a graphical interface.

16.2. Control of the LightSensor function

A few lines of code are enough to use a Yocto-Light. Here is the skeleton of a Java code snippet to use the LightSensor function.


[...]

// Get access to your device, connected locally on USB for instance
YAPI.RegisterHub("127.0.0.1");
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");

// Hot-plug is easy: just check that the device is online
if (lightsensor.isOnline())
{    
    // Use lightsensor.get_currentValue()
    [...]
}

[...]

Let us look at these lines in more details.

YAPI.RegisterHub

The yAPI.RegisterHub function initializes the Yoctopuce API and indicates where the modules should be looked for. The parameter is the address of the Virtual Hub able to see the devices. If the initialization does not succeed, an exception is thrown.

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor

The YLightSensor.FindLightSensor function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can use logical names as well, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyModule.lightSensor")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyModule.MyFunction")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyFunction")

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

A real example

Launch you Java environment and open the corresponding sample project provided in the directory Examples/Doc-GettingStarted-Yocto-Light of the Yoctopuce library.

In this example, you will recognize the functions explained above, but this time used with all the side materials needed to make it work nicely as a small demo.

import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.*;

public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        try {
            // setup the API to use local VirtualHub
            YAPI.RegisterHub("http://127.0.0.1:4444/");
        } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
            System.out.println("Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1 (" + ex.getLocalizedMessage() + ")");
            System.out.println("Ensure that the VirtualHub application is running");
            System.exit(1);
        }

        YLightSensor sensor;
        if (args.length > 0) {
            sensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor(args[0] + ".lightSensor");
        } else {
            sensor = YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor();
            if (sensor == null) {
                System.out.println("No module connected (check USB cable)");
                System.exit(1);
            }
        }
        while (true) {
            try {
                System.out.println("Current ambient light: " + sensor.get_currentValue() + " lx");
                System.out.println("  (press Ctrl-C to exit)");
                YAPI.Sleep(1000);
            } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
                System.out.println("Module " + sensor + "not connected (check identification and USB cable)");
                System.out.println(ex.getMessage());
                System.exit(1);
            }
        }
    }
}
 

16.3. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.


import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.*;
import java.util.logging.Level;
import java.util.logging.Logger;

public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        try {
            // setup the API to use local VirtualHub
            YAPI.RegisterHub("127.0.0.1");
        } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
            System.out.println("Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1 (" + ex.getLocalizedMessage() + ")");
            System.out.println("Ensure that the VirtualHub application is running");
            System.exit(1);
        }
        System.out.println("usage: demo [serial or logical name] [ON/OFF]");

        YModule module;
        if (args.length == 0) {
            module = YModule.FirstModule();
            if (module == null) {
                System.out.println("No module connected (check USB cable)");
                System.exit(1);
            }
        } else {
            module = YModule.FindModule(args[0]);  // use serial or logical name
        }

        try {
            if (args.length > 1) {
                if (args[1].equalsIgnoreCase("ON")) {
                    module.setBeacon(YModule.BEACON_ON);
                } else {
                    module.setBeacon(YModule.BEACON_OFF);
                }
            }
            System.out.println("serial:       " + module.get_serialNumber());
            System.out.println("logical name: " + module.get_logicalName());
            System.out.println("luminosity:   " + module.get_luminosity());
            if (module.get_beacon() == YModule.BEACON_ON) {
                System.out.println("beacon:       ON");
            } else {
                System.out.println("beacon:       OFF");
            }
            System.out.println("upTime:       " + module.get_upTime() / 1000 + " sec");
            System.out.println("USB current:  " + module.get_usbCurrent() + " mA");
            System.out.println("logs:\n" + module.get_lastLogs());
        } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
            System.out.println(args[1] + " not connected (check identification and USB cable)");
        }
        YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }
}
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type YModule.get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the YModule.set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding YModule.set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the YModule.saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the YModule.revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.*;

public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        try {
            // setup the API to use local VirtualHub
            YAPI.RegisterHub("127.0.0.1");
        } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
            System.out.println("Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1 (" + ex.getLocalizedMessage() + ")");
            System.out.println("Ensure that the VirtualHub application is running");
            System.exit(1);
        }

        if (args.length != 2) {
            System.out.println("usage: demo <serial or logical name> <new logical name>");
            System.exit(1);
        }

        YModule m;
        String newname;

        m = YModule.FindModule(args[0]); // use serial or logical name

        try {
            newname = args[1];
            if (!YAPI.CheckLogicalName(newname))
                {
                    System.out.println("Invalid name (" + newname + ")");
                    System.exit(1);
                }

            m.set_logicalName(newname);
            m.saveToFlash(); // do not forget this

            System.out.println("Module: serial= " + m.get_serialNumber());
            System.out.println(" / name= " + m.get_logicalName());
        } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
            System.out.println("Module " + args[0] + "not connected (check identification and USB cable)");
            System.out.println(ex.getMessage());
            System.exit(1);
        }

        YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }
}
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the YModule.saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the YModule.yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not null. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.*;

public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        try {
            // setup the API to use local VirtualHub
            YAPI.RegisterHub("127.0.0.1");
        } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
            System.out.println("Cannot contact VirtualHub on 127.0.0.1 (" + ex.getLocalizedMessage() + ")");
            System.out.println("Ensure that the VirtualHub application is running");
            System.exit(1);
        }

        System.out.println("Device list");
        YModule module = YModule.FirstModule();
        while (module != null) {
            try {
                System.out.println(module.get_serialNumber() + " (" + module.get_productName() + ")");
            } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
                break;
            }
            module = module.nextModule();
        }
        YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }
}
 

16.4. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software.

In the Java API, error handling is implemented with exceptions. Therefore you must catch and handle correctly all exceptions that might be thrown by the API if you do not want your software to crash as soon as you unplug a device.

17. Using the Yocto-Light with Android

To tell the truth, Android is not a programming language, it is an operating system developed by Google for mobile appliances such as smart phones and tablets. But it so happens that under Android everything is programmed with the same programming language: Java. Nevertheless, the programming paradigms and the possibilities to access the hardware are slightly different from classical Java, and this justifies a separate chapter on Android programming.

17.1. Native access and VirtualHub

In the opposite to the classical Java API, the Java for Android API can access USB modules natively. However, as there is no VirtualHub running under Android, it is not possible to remotely control Yoctopuce modules connected to a machine under Android. Naturally, the Java for Android API remains perfectly able to connect itself to a VirtualHub running on another OS.

17.2. Getting ready

Go to the Yoctopuce web site and download the Java for Android programming library45. The library is available as source files, and also as a jar file. Connect your modules, decompress the library files in the directory of your choice, and configure your Android programming environment so that it can find them.

To keep them simple, all the examples provided in this documentation are snippets of Android applications. You must integrate them in your own Android applications to make them work. However, your can find complete applications in the examples provided with the Java for Android library.

17.3. Compatibility

In an ideal world, you would only need to have a smart phone running under Android to be able to make Yoctopuce modules work. Unfortunately, it is not quite so in the real world. A machine running under Android must fulfil to a few requirements to be able to manage Yoctopuce USB modules natively.

Android 4.x

Android 4.0 (api 14) and following are officially supported. Theoretically, support of USB host functions since Android 3.1. But be aware that the Yoctopuce Java for Android API is regularly tested only from Android 4 onwards.

USB host support

Naturally, not only must your machine have a USB port, this port must also be able to run in host mode. In host mode, the machine literally takes control of the devices which are connected to it. The USB ports of a desktop computer, for example, work in host mode. The opposite of the host mode is the device mode. USB keys, for instance, work in device mode: they must be controlled by a host. Some USB ports are able to work in both modes, they are OTG (On The Go) ports. It so happens that many mobile devices can only work in device mode: they are designed to be connected to a charger or a desktop computer, and nothing else. It is therefore highly recommended to pay careful attention to the technical specifications of a product working under Android before hoping to make Yoctopuce modules work with it.

Unfortunately, having a correct version of Android and USB ports working in host mode is not enough to guaranty that Yoctopuce modules will work well under Android. Indeed, some manufacturers configure their Android image so that devices other than keyboard and mass storage are ignored, and this configuration is hard to detect. As things currently stand, the best way to know if a given Android machine works with Yoctopuce modules consists in trying.

Supported hardware

The library is tested and validated on the following machines:

If your Android machine is not able to control Yoctopuce modules natively, you still have the possibility to remotely control modules driven by a VirtualHub on another OS, or a YoctoHub 46.

17.4. Activating the USB port under Android

By default, Android does not allow an application to access the devices connected to the USB port. To enable your application to interact with a Yoctopuce module directly connected on your tablet on a USB port, a few additional steps are required. If you intend to interact only with modules connected on another machine through the network, you can ignore this section.

In your AndroidManifest.xml, you must declare using the "USB Host" functionality by adding the <uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.usb.host" /> tag in the manifest section.


<manifest ...>
    ...
    <uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.usb.host" />;
    ...
</manifest>

When first accessing a Yoctopuce module, Android opens a window to inform the user that the application is going to access the connected module. The user can deny or authorize access to the device. If the user authorizes the access, the application can access the connected device as long as it stays connected. To enable the Yoctopuce library to correctly manage these authorizations, your must provide a pointer on the application context by calling the EnableUSBHost method of the YAPI class before the first USB access. This function takes as arguments an object of the android.content.Context class (or of a subclass). As the Activity class is a subclass of Context, it is simpler to call YAPI.EnableUSBHost(this); in the method onCreate of your application. If the object passed as parameter is not of the correct type, a YAPI_Exception exception is generated.


...
@Override
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
    super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    try {
                // Pass the application Context to the Yoctopuce Library
        YAPI.EnableUSBHost(this);
        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
                Log.e("Yocto",e.getLocalizedMessage());
        }
}
...

Autorun

It is possible to register your application as a default application for a USB module. In this case, as soon as a module is connected to the system, the application is automatically launched. You must add <action android:name="android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED"/> in the section <intent-filter> of the main activity. The section <activity> must have a pointer to an XML file containing the list of USB modules which can run the application.


<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    ...
    <uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.usb.host" />
    ...
    <application ... >
        <activity
            android:name=".MainActivity" >
            <intent-filter>
                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
                <action android:name="android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
            </intent-filter>

            <meta-data
                android:name="android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED"
                android:resource="@xml/device_filter" />
        </activity>
    </application>

</manifest>

The XML file containing the list of modules allowed to run the application must be saved in the res/xml directory. This file contains a list of USB vendorId and deviceID in decimal. The following example runs the application as soon as a Yocto-Relay or a YoctoPowerRelay is connected. You can find the vendorID and the deviceID of Yoctopuce modules in the characteristics section of the documentation.


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<resources>
    <usb-device vendor-id="9440" product-id="12" />
    <usb-device vendor-id="9440" product-id="13" />
</resources>

17.5. Control of the LightSensor function

A few lines of code are enough to use a Yocto-Light. Here is the skeleton of a Java code snippet to use the LightSensor function.


[...]

// Retrieving the object representing the module (connected here locally by USB)
YAPI.EnableUSBHost(this);
YAPI.RegisterHub("usb");
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor");

// Hot-plug is easy: just check that the device is online
if (lightsensor.isOnline())
   { //Use lightsensor.get_currentValue()
     ...
   }

[...]

Let us look at these lines in more details.

YAPI.EnableUSBHost

The YAPI.EnableUSBHost function initializes the API with the Context of the current application. This function takes as argument an object of the android.content.Context class (or of a subclass). If you intend to connect your application only to other machines through the network, this function is facultative.

YAPI.RegisterHub

The yAPI.RegisterHub function initializes the Yoctopuce API and indicates where the modules should be looked for. The parameter is the address of the virtual hub able to see the devices. If the string "usb" is passed as parameter, the API works with modules locally connected to the machine. If the initialization does not succeed, an exception is thrown.

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor

The YLightSensor.FindLightSensor function allows you to find a light sensor from the serial number of the module on which it resides and from its function name. You can use logical names as well, as long as you have initialized them. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light module with serial number LIGHTMK1-123456 which you have named "MyModule", and for which you have given the lightSensor function the name "MyFunction". The following five calls are strictly equivalent, as long as "MyFunction" is defined only once.


lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.lightSensor")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("LIGHTMK1-123456.MyFunction")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyModule.lightSensor")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyModule.MyFunction")
lightsensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor("MyFunction")

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor returns an object which you can then use at will to control the light sensor.

isOnline

The isOnline() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor allows you to know if the corresponding module is present and in working order.

get_currentValue

The get_currentValue() method of the object returned by YLightSensor.FindLightSensor provides you with a measure of the ambient light, given by the sensor. The returned value is a number, directly representing the value in Lux.

A real example

Launch you Java environment and open the corresponding sample project provided in the directory Examples//Doc-Examples of the Yoctopuce library.

In this example, you can recognize the functions explained above, but this time used with all the side materials needed to make it work nicely as a small demo.

package com.yoctopuce.doc_examples;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Handler;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.AdapterView.OnItemSelectedListener;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.Spinner;
import android.widget.TextView;

import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YAPI;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YAPI_Exception;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YLightSensor;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YModule;

public class GettingStarted_Yocto_Light extends Activity implements OnItemSelectedListener
{

    private ArrayAdapter<String> aa;
    private String serial = "";
    private Handler handler = null;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
    {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.gettingstarted_yocto_light);
        Spinner my_spin = (Spinner) findViewById(R.id.spinner1);
        my_spin.setOnItemSelectedListener(this);
        aa = new ArrayAdapter<String>(this, android.R.layout.simple_spinner_item);
        aa.setDropDownViewResource(android.R.layout.simple_spinner_dropdown_item);
        my_spin.setAdapter(aa);
        handler = new Handler();
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStart()
    {
        super.onStart();
        try {
            aa.clear();
            YAPI.EnableUSBHost(this);
            YAPI.RegisterHub("usb");
            YModule module = YModule.FirstModule();
            while (module != null) {
                if (module.get_productName().equals("Yocto-Light")) {
                    String serial = module.get_serialNumber();
                    aa.add(serial);
                }
                module = module.nextModule();
            }
        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        aa.notifyDataSetChanged();
        handler.postDelayed(r, 500);
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStop()
    {
        super.onStop();
        handler.removeCallbacks(r);
        YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }

    @Override
    public void onItemSelected(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int pos, long id)
    {
        serial = parent.getItemAtPosition(pos).toString();
    }

    @Override
    public void onNothingSelected(AdapterView<?> arg0)
    {
    }

    final Runnable r = new Runnable()
    {
        public void run()
        {
            if (serial != null) {
                YLightSensor light_sensor = YLightSensor.FindLightSensor(serial + ".lightSensor");
                try {
                    TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.lightfield);
                    view.setText(String.format("%.1f %s", light_sensor.getCurrentValue(), light_sensor.getUnit()));
                } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            handler.postDelayed(this, 1000);
        }
    };
}
 

17.6. Control of the module part

Each module can be controlled in a similar manner, you can find below a simple sample program displaying the main parameters of the module and enabling you to activate the localization beacon.

package com.yoctopuce.doc_examples;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.AdapterView.OnItemSelectedListener;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.Spinner;
import android.widget.Switch;
import android.widget.TextView;

import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YAPI;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YAPI_Exception;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YModule;

public class ModuleControl extends Activity implements OnItemSelectedListener
{

    private ArrayAdapter<String> aa;
    private YModule module = null;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
    {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.modulecontrol);
        Spinner my_spin = (Spinner) findViewById(R.id.spinner1);
        my_spin.setOnItemSelectedListener(this);
        aa = new ArrayAdapter<String>(this, android.R.layout.simple_spinner_item);
        aa.setDropDownViewResource(android.R.layout.simple_spinner_dropdown_item);
        my_spin.setAdapter(aa);
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStart()
    {
        super.onStart();

        try {
            aa.clear();
            YAPI.EnableUSBHost(this);
            YAPI.RegisterHub("usb");
            YModule r = YModule.FirstModule();
            while (r != null) {
                String hwid = r.get_hardwareId();
                aa.add(hwid);
                r = r.nextModule();
            }
        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        // refresh Spinner with detected relay
        aa.notifyDataSetChanged();
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStop()
    {
        super.onStop();
        YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }

    private void DisplayModuleInfo()
    {
        TextView field;
        if (module == null)
            return;
        try {
            field = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.serialfield);
            field.setText(module.getSerialNumber());
            field = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.logicalnamefield);
            field.setText(module.getLogicalName());
            field = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.luminosityfield);
            field.setText(String.format("%d%%", module.getLuminosity()));
            field = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.uptimefield);
            field.setText(module.getUpTime() / 1000 + " sec");
            field = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.usbcurrentfield);
            field.setText(module.getUsbCurrent() + " mA");
            Switch sw = (Switch) findViewById(R.id.beaconswitch);
            sw.setChecked(module.getBeacon() == YModule.BEACON_ON);
            field = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.logs);
            field.setText(module.get_lastLogs());

        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onItemSelected(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int pos, long id)
    {
        String hwid = parent.getItemAtPosition(pos).toString();
        module = YModule.FindModule(hwid);
        DisplayModuleInfo();
    }

    @Override
    public void onNothingSelected(AdapterView<?> arg0)
    {
    }

    public void refreshInfo(View view)
    {
        DisplayModuleInfo();
    }

    public void toggleBeacon(View view)
    {
        if (module == null)
            return;
        boolean on = ((Switch) view).isChecked();

        try {
            if (on) {
                module.setBeacon(YModule.BEACON_ON);
            } else {
                module.setBeacon(YModule.BEACON_OFF);
            }
        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}
 

Each property xxx of the module can be read thanks to a method of type YModule.get_xxxx(), and properties which are not read-only can be modified with the help of the YModule.set_xxx() method. For more details regarding the used functions, refer to the API chapters.

Changing the module settings

When you want to modify the settings of a module, you only need to call the corresponding YModule.set_xxx() function. However, this modification is performed only in the random access memory (RAM) of the module: if the module is restarted, the modifications are lost. To memorize them persistently, it is necessary to ask the module to save its current configuration in its permanent memory. To do so, use the YModule.saveToFlash() method. Inversely, it is possible to force the module to forget its current settings by using the YModule.revertFromFlash() method. The short example below allows you to modify the logical name of a module.

package com.yoctopuce.doc_examples;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.AdapterView;
import android.widget.AdapterView.OnItemSelectedListener;
import android.widget.ArrayAdapter;
import android.widget.EditText;
import android.widget.Spinner;
import android.widget.TextView;
import android.widget.Toast;

import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YAPI;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YAPI_Exception;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YModule;

public class SaveSettings extends Activity implements OnItemSelectedListener
{

    private ArrayAdapter<String> aa;
    private YModule module = null;

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
    {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.savesettings);
        Spinner my_spin = (Spinner) findViewById(R.id.spinner1);
        my_spin.setOnItemSelectedListener(this);
        aa = new ArrayAdapter<String>(this, android.R.layout.simple_spinner_item);
        aa.setDropDownViewResource(android.R.layout.simple_spinner_dropdown_item);
        my_spin.setAdapter(aa);
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStart()
    {
        super.onStart();

        try {
            aa.clear();
            YAPI.EnableUSBHost(this);
            YAPI.RegisterHub("usb");
            YModule r = YModule.FirstModule();
            while (r != null) {
                String hwid = r.get_hardwareId();
                aa.add(hwid);
                r = r.nextModule();
            }
        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        // refresh Spinner with detected relay
        aa.notifyDataSetChanged();
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStop()
    {
        super.onStop();
        YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }

    private void DisplayModuleInfo()
    {
        TextView field;
        if (module == null)
            return;
        try {
            YAPI.UpdateDeviceList();// fixme
            field = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.logicalnamefield);
            field.setText(module.getLogicalName());
        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onItemSelected(AdapterView<?> parent, View view, int pos, long id)
    {
        String hwid = parent.getItemAtPosition(pos).toString();
        module = YModule.FindModule(hwid);
        DisplayModuleInfo();
    }

    @Override
    public void onNothingSelected(AdapterView<?> arg0)
    {
    }

    public void saveName(View view)
    {
        if (module == null)
            return;

        EditText edit = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.newname);
        String newname = edit.getText().toString();
        try {
            if (!YAPI.CheckLogicalName(newname)) {
                Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), "Invalid name (" + newname + ")", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();
                return;
            }
            module.set_logicalName(newname);
            module.saveToFlash(); // do not forget this
            edit.setText("");
        } catch (YAPI_Exception ex) {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
        DisplayModuleInfo();
    }

}
 

Warning: the number of write cycles of the nonvolatile memory of the module is limited. When this limit is reached, nothing guaranties that the saving process is performed correctly. This limit, linked to the technology employed by the module micro-processor, is located at about 100000 cycles. In short, you can use the YModule.saveToFlash() function only 100000 times in the life of the module. Make sure you do not call this function within a loop.

Listing the modules

Obtaining the list of the connected modules is performed with the YModule.yFirstModule() function which returns the first module found. Then, you only need to call the nextModule() function of this object to find the following modules, and this as long as the returned value is not null. Below a short example listing the connected modules.

package com.yoctopuce.doc_examples;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.util.TypedValue;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.LinearLayout;
import android.widget.TextView;

import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YAPI;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YAPI_Exception;
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YModule;

public class Inventory extends Activity
{

    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState)
    {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.inventory);
    }

    public void refreshInventory(View view)
    {
        LinearLayout layout = (LinearLayout) findViewById(R.id.inventoryList);
        layout.removeAllViews();

        try {
            YAPI.UpdateDeviceList();
            YModule module = YModule.FirstModule();
            while (module != null) {
                String line = module.get_serialNumber() + " (" + module.get_productName() + ")";
                TextView tx = new TextView(this);
                tx.setText(line);
                tx.setTextSize(TypedValue.COMPLEX_UNIT_SP, 20);
                layout.addView(tx);
                module = module.nextModule();
            }
        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStart()
    {
        super.onStart();
        try {
            YAPI.EnableUSBHost(this);
            YAPI.RegisterHub("usb");
        } catch (YAPI_Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        refreshInventory(null);
    }

    @Override
    protected void onStop()
    {
        super.onStop();
        YAPI.FreeAPI();
    }

}
 

17.7. Error handling

When you implement a program which must interact with USB modules, you cannot disregard error handling. Inevitably, there will be a time when a user will have unplugged the device, either before running the software, or even while the software is running. The Yoctopuce library is designed to help you support this kind of behavior, but your code must nevertheless be conceived to interpret in the best possible way the errors indicated by the library.

The simplest way to work around the problem is the one used in the short examples provided in this chapter: before accessing a module, check that it is online with the isOnline function, and then hope that it will stay so during the fraction of a second necessary for the following code lines to run. This method is not perfect, but it can be sufficient in some cases. You must however be aware that you cannot completely exclude an error which would occur after the call to isOnline and which could crash the software.

In the Java API for Android, error handling is implemented with exceptions. Therefore you must catch and handle correctly all exceptions that might be thrown by the API if you do not want your software to crash soon as you unplug a device.

18. Advanced programming

The preceding chapters have introduced, in each available language, the basic programming functions which can be used with your Yocto-Light module. This chapter presents in a more generic manner a more advanced use of your module. Examples are provided in the language which is the most popular among Yoctopuce customers, that is C#. Nevertheless, you can find complete examples illustrating the concepts presented here in the programming libraries of each language.

To remain as concise as possible, examples provided in this chapter do not perform any error handling. Do not copy them "as is" in a production application.

18.1. Event programming

The methods to manage Yoctopuce modules which we presented to you in preceding chapters were polling functions, consisting in permanently asking the API if something had changed. While easy to understand, this programming technique is not the most efficient, nor the most reactive. Therefore, the Yoctopuce programming API also provides an event programming model. This technique consists in asking the API to signal by itself the important changes as soon as they are detected. Each time a key parameter is modified, the API calls a callback function which you have defined in advance.

Detecting module arrival and departure

Hot-plug management is important when you work with USB modules because, sooner or later, you will have to connect or disconnect a module when your application is running. The API is designed to manage module unexpected arrival or departure in a transparent way. But your application must take this into account if it wants to avoid pretending to use a disconnected module.

Event programming is particularly useful to detect module connection/disconnection. Indeed, it is simpler to be told of new connections rather than to have to permanently list the connected modules to deduce which ones just arrived and which ones left. To be warned as soon as a module is connected, you need three pieces of code.

The callback

The callback is the function which is called each time a new Yoctopuce module is connected. It takes as parameter the relevant module.


 static void deviceArrival(YModule m)
{
  Console.WriteLine("New module  : " + m.get_serialNumber());
}

Initialization

You must then tell the API that it must call the callback when a new module is connected.


YAPI.RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(deviceArrival);

Note that if modules are already connected when the callback is registered, the callback is called for each of the already connected modules.

Triggering callbacks

A classis issue of callback programming is that these callbacks can be triggered at any time, including at times when the main program is not ready to receive them. This can have undesired side effects, such as dead-locks and other race conditions. Therefore, in the Yoctopuce API, module arrival/departure callbacks are called only when the UpdateDeviceList() function is running. You only need to call UpdateDeviceList() at regular intervals from a timer or from a specific thread to precisely control when the calls to these callbacks happen:


// waiting loop managing callbacks
while (true)
{
    // module arrival / departure callback
    YAPI.UpdateDeviceList(ref errmsg);
    // non active waiting time managing other callbacks
    YAPI.Sleep(500, ref errmsg);
}

In a similar way, it is possible to have a callback when a module is disconnected. You can find a complete example implemented in your favorite programming language in the Examples/Prog-EventBased directory of the corresponding library.

Be aware that in most programming languages, callbacks must be global procedures, and not methods. If you wish for the callback to call the method of an object, define your callback as a global procedure which then calls your method.

Detecting a modification in the value of a sensor

The Yoctopuce API also provides a callback system allowing you to be notified automatically with the value of any sensor, either when the value has changed in a significant way or periodically at a preset frequency. The code necessary to do so is rather similar to the code used to detect when a new module has been connected.

This technique is useful in particular if you want to detect very quick value changes (within a few milliseconds), as it is much more efficient than reading repeatedly the sensor value and therefore gives better performances.

Calliback invocation

To enable a better control, value change callbacks are only called when the YAPI.Sleep() and YAPI.HandleEvents() functions are running. Therefore, you must call one of these functions at a regular interval, either from a timer or from a parallel thread.


while (true)
{
  // inactive waiting loop allowing you to trigger
  // value change callbacks
  YAPI.Sleep(500, ref errmsg);
}

In programming environments where only the interface thread is allowed to interact with the user, it is often appropriate to call YAPI.HandleEvents() from this thread.

The value change callback

This type of callback is called when a light sensor changes in a significant way. It takes as parameter the relevant function and the new value, as a character string. 47


static void valueChangeCallback(YLightSensor fct, string value)
{
  Console.WriteLine(fct.get_hardwareId() + "=" + value);
}

In most programming languages, callbacks are global procedures, not methods. If you wish for the callback to call a method of an object, define your callback as a global procedure which then calls your method. If you need to keep a reference to your object, you can store it directly in the YLightSensor object using function set_userData. You can then retrieve it in the global callback procedure using get_userData.

Setting up a value change callback

The callback is set up for a given LightSensor function with the help of the registerValueCallback method. The following example sets up a callback for the first available LightSensor function.


YLightSensor f = YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor();
f.registerValueCallback(lightSensorChangeCallBack)

Note that each module function can thus have its own distinct callback. By the way, if you like to work with value change callbacks, you will appreciate the fact that value change callbacks are not limited to sensors, but are also available for all Yoctopuce devices (for instance, you can also receive a callback any time a relay state changes).

The timed report callback

This type of callback is automatically called at a predefined time interval. The callback frequency can be configured individually for each sensor, with frequencies going from hundred calls per seconds down to one call per hour. The callback takes as parameter the relevant function and the measured value, as an YMeasure object. Contrarily to the value change callback that only receives the latest value, an YMeasure object provides both minimal, maximal and average values since the timed report callback. Moreover, the measure includes precise timestamps, which makes it possible to use timed reports for a time-based graph even when not handled immediately.


static void periodicCallback(YLightSensor fct, YMeasure measure)
{
  Console.WriteLine(fct.get_hardwareId() + "=" +
                    measure.get_averageValue());
}

Setting up a timed report callback

The callback is set up for a given LightSensor function with the help of the registerTimedReportCallback method. The callback will only be invoked once a callback frequency as been set using set_reportFrequency (which defaults to timed report callback turned off). The frequency is specified as a string (same as for the data logger), by specifying the number of calls per second (/s), per minute (/m) or per hour (/h). The maximal frequency is 100 times per second (i.e. "100/s"), and the minimal frequency is 1 time per hour (i.e. "1/h"). When the frequency is higher than or equal to 1/s, the measure represents an instant value. When the frequency is below, the measure will include distinct minimal, maximal and average values based on a sampling performed automatically by the device.

The following example sets up a timed report callback 4 times per minute for t he first available LightSensor function.


YLightSensor f = YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor();
f.set_reportFrequency("4/m");
f.registerTimedReportCallback(periodicCallback);

As for value change callbacks, each module function can thus have its own distinct timed report callback.

Generic callback functions

It is sometimes desirable to use the same callback function for various types of sensors (e.g. for a generic sensor graphing application). This is possible by defining the callback for an object of class YSensor rather than YLightSensor. Thus, the same callback function will be usable with any subclass of YSensor (and in particular with YLightSensor). With the callback function, you can use the method get_unt() to get the physical unit of the sensor, if you need to display it.

A complete example

You can find a complete example implemented in your favorite programming language in the Examples/Prog-EventBased directory of the corresponding library.

18.2. The data logger

Your Yocto-Light is equipped with a data logger able to store non-stop the measures performed by the module. The maximal frequency is 100 times per second (i.e. "100/s"), and the minimal frequency is 1 time per hour (i.e. "1/h"). When the frequency is higher than or equal to 1/s, the measure represents an instant value. When the frequency is below, the measure will include distinct minimal, maximal and average values based on a sampling performed automatically by the device.

The data logger flash memory can store about 500'000 instant measures, or 125'000 averaged measures. When the memory is about to be saturated, the oldest measures are automatically erased.

Make sure not to leave the data logger running at high speed unless really needed: the flash memory can only stand a limited number of erase cycles (typically 100'000 cycles). When running at full speed, the datalogger can burn more than 100 cycles per day ! Also be aware that it is useless to record measures at a frequency higher than the refresh frequency of the physical sensor itself.

Starting/stopping the datalogger

The data logger can be started with the set_recording() method.


YDataLogger l = YDataLogger.FirstDataLogger();
l.set_recording(YDataLogger.RECORDING_ON);

It is possible to make the data recording start automatically as soon as the module is powered on.


YDataLogger l = YDataLogger.FirstDataLogger();
l.set_autoStart(YDataLogger.AUTOSTART_ON);
l.get_module().saveToFlash();  // do not forget to save the setting

Note: Yoctopuce modules do not need an active USB connection to work: they start working as soon as they are powered on. The Yocto-Light can store data without necessarily being connected to a computer: you only need to activate the automatic start of the data logger and to power on the module with a simple USB charger.

Erasing the memory

The memory of the data logger can be erased with the forgetAllDataStreams() function. Be aware that erasing cannot be undone.


YDataLogger l = YDataLogger.FirstDataLogger();
l.forgetAllDataStreams();

Choosing the logging frequency

The logging frequency can be set up individually for each sensor, using the method set_logFrequency(). The frequency is specified as a string (same as for timed report callbacks), by specifying the number of calls per second (/s), per minute (/m) or per hour (/h). The default value is "1/s".

The following example configures the logging frequency at 15 measures per minute for the first sensor found, whatever its type:


YSensor sensor = YSensor.FirstSensor();
sensor.set_logFrequency("15/m");

To avoid wasting flash memory, it is possible to disable logging for specified functions. In order to do so, simply use the value "OFF":


sensor.set_logFrequency("OFF");

Limitation: The Yocto-Light cannot use a different frequency for timed-report callbacks and for recording data into the datalogger. You can disable either of them individually, but if you enable both timed-report callbacks and logging for a given function, the two will work at the same frequency.

Retrieving the data

To load recorded measures from the Yocto-Light flash memory, you must call the get_recordedData() method of the desired sensor, and specify the time interval for which you want to retrieve measures. The time interval is given by the start and stop UNIX timestamp. You can also specify 0 if you don't want any start or stop limit.

The get_recordedData() method does not return directly am array of measured values, since in some cases it would cause a huge load that could affect the responsiveness of the application. Instead, this function will return an YDataSet object that can be used to retrieve immediately an overview of the measured data (summary), and then to load progressively the details when desired.

Here are the main methods used to retrieve recorded measures:

  1. dataset = sensor.get_recordedData(0,0): select the desired time interval
  2. dataset.loadMore(): load data from the device, progressively
  3. dataset.get_summary(): get a single measure summarizing the full time interval
  4. dataset.get_preview(): get an array of measures representing a condensed version of the whole set of measures on the selected time interval (reduced by a factor of approx. 200)
  5. dataset.get_measures(): get an array with all detailled measures (that grows while loadMore is being called repeteadly)

Measures are instances of YMeasure 48. They store simultaneously the minimal, average and maximal value at a given time, that you can retrieve using methods get_minValue(), get_averageValue() and get_maxValue() respectively. Here is a small example that uses the functions above:


// We will retrieve all measures, without time limit
YDataSet dataset = sensor.get_recordedData(0, 0);

// First call to loadMore() loads the summary/preview
dataset.loadMore();
YMeasure summary = dataset.get_summary();
string timeFmt = "dd MMM yyyy hh:mm:ss,fff";
string logFmt = "from {0} to {1} : average={2:0.00}{3}";
Console.WriteLine(String.Format(logFmt,
    summary.get_startTimeUTC_asDateTime().ToString(timeFmt),
    summary.get_endTimeUTC_asDateTime().ToString(timeFmt),
    summary.get_averageValue(), sensor.get_unit()));

// Next calls to loadMore() will retrieve measures
Console.WriteLine("loading details");
int progress;
do {
    Console.Write(".");
    progress = dataset.loadMore();
} while(progress < 100);

// All measures have now been loaded
List<YMeasure> details = dataset.get_measures();
foreach (YMeasure m in details) {
    Console.WriteLine(String.Format(logFmt,
        m.get_startTimeUTC_asDateTime().ToString(timeFmt),
        m.get_endTimeUTC_asDateTime().ToString(timeFmt),
        m.get_averageValue(), sensor.get_unit()));
}

You will find a complete example demonstrating how to retrieve data from the logger for each programming language directly in the Yoctopuce library. The example can be found in directory Examples/Prog-DataLogger.

Timestamp

As the Yocto-Light does not have a battery, it cannot guess alone the current time when powered on. Nevertheless, the Yocto-Light will automatically try to adjust its real-time reference using the host to which it is connected, in order to properly attach a timestamp to each measure in the datalogger:

When none of these conditions applies (for instance if the module is simply connected to an USB charger), the Yocto-Light will do its best effort to attach a reasonable timestamp to the measures, using the timestamp found on the latest recorded measures. It is therefore possible to "preset to the real time" an autonomous Yocto-Light by connecting it to an Android mobile phone, starting the data logger, then connecting the device alone on an USB charger. Nevertheless, be aware that without external time source, the internal clock of the Yocto-Light might be be subject to a clock skew (theoretically up to 0.3%).

18.3. Sensor calibration

Your Yocto-Light module is equipped with a digital sensor calibrated at the factory. The values it returns are supposed to be reasonably correct in most cases. There are, however, situations where external conditions can impact the measures.

The Yoctopuce API provides the mean to re-caliber the values measured by your Yocto-Light. You are not going to modify the hardware settings of the module, but rather to transform afterwards the measures taken by the sensor. This transformation is controlled by parameters stored in the flash memory of the module, making it specific for each module. This re-calibration is therefore a fully software matter and remains perfectly reversible.

Before deciding to re-calibrate your Yocto-Light module, make sure you have well understood the phenomena which impact the measures of your module, and that the differences between true values and measured values do not result from a incorrect use or an inadequate location of the module.

The Yoctopuce modules support two types of calibration. On the one hand, a linear interpolation based on 1 to 5 reference points, which can be performed directly inside the Yocto-Light. On the other hand, the API supports an external arbitrary calibration, implemented with callbacks.

1 to 5 point linear interpolation

These transformations are performed directly inside the Yocto-Light which means that you only have to store the calibration points in the module flash memory, and all the correction computations are done in a perfectly transparent manner: The function get_currentValue() returns the corrected value while the function get_currentRawValue() keeps returning the value before the correction.

Calibration points are simply (Raw_value, Corrected_value) couples. Let us look at the impact of the number of calibration points on the corrections.

1 point correction

The 1 point correction only adds a shift to the measures. For example, if you provide the calibration point (a, b), all the measured values are corrected by adding to them b-a, so that when the value read on the sensor is a, the lightSensor function returns b.


Measure correction with 1 calibration point, here (5,10)

The application is very simple: you only need to call the calibrateFromPoints() method of the function you wish to correct. The following code applies the correction illustrated on the graph above to the first lightSensor function found. Note the call to the saveToFlash method of the module hosting the function, so that the module does not forget the calibration as soon as it is disconnected.


Double[] ValuesBefore = {5};
Double[] ValuesAfter  = {10};
YLightSensor f = YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor();
f.calibrateFromPoints(ValuesBefore, ValuesAfter);
f.get_module().saveToFlash();

2 point correction

2 point correction allows you to perform both a shift and a multiplication by a given factor between two points. If you provide the two points (a, b) and (c, d), the function result is multiplied (d-b)/(c-a) in the [a, c] range and shifted, so that when the value read by the sensor is a or c, the lightSensor function returns respectively b and d. Outside of the [a, c] range, the values are simply shifted, so as to preserve the continuity of the measures: an increase of 1 on the value read by the sensor induces an increase of 1 on the returned value.


Measure correction with the two calibration points (10,5) and (25,10).

The code allowing you to program this calibration is very similar to the preceding code example.


Double[] ValuesBefore = {10,25};
Double[] ValuesAfter  = {5,10};
YLightSensor f = YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor();
f.calibrateFromPoints(ValuesBefore, ValuesAfter);
f.get_module().saveToFlash();

Note that the values before correction must be sorted in a strictly ascending order, otherwise they are simply ignored.

3 to 5 point correction

3 to 5 point corrections are only a generalization of the 2 point method, allowing you to create up to 4 correction ranges for an increased precision. These ranges cannot be disjoint.


Correction example with 3 calibration points

Back to normal

To cancel the effect of a calibration on a function, call the calibrateFromPoints() method with two empty arrays.


Double[] ValuesBefore = {};
Double[] ValuesAfter  = {};
YLightSensor f = YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor();
f.calibrateFromPoints(ValuesBefore, ValuesAfter);
f.get_module().saveToFlash();

You will find, in the Examples\Prog-Calibration directory of the Delphi, VB, and C# libraries, an application allowing you to test the effects of the 1 to 5 point calibration.

Arbitrary interpolation

It is also possible to compute the interpolation instead of letting the module do it, in order to calculate a spline interpolation, for instance. To do so, you only need to store a callback in the API. This callback must specify the number of calibration points it is expecting.


public static double CustomInterpolation3Points(double rawValue, int calibType,
                  int[] parameters, double[] beforeValues, double[] afterValues)
  {  double result;
     // the value to be corrected is rawValue
     // calibration points are in beforeValues and afterValues
     result = ....    // interpolation of your choice
     return result;
   }
YAPI.RegisterCalibrationHandler(3, CustomInterpolation3Points);

Note that these interpolation callbacks are global, and not specific to each function. Thus, each time someone requests a value from a module which contains in its flash memory the correct number of calibration points, the corresponding callback is called to correct the value before returning it, enabling thus a perfectly transparent measure correction.

19. Firmware Update

There are multiples way to update the firmware of a Yoctopuce module..

19.1. The VirtualHub or the YoctoHub

It is possible to update the firmware directly from the web interface of the VirtualHub or the YoctoHub. The configuration panel of the module has an "upgrade" button to start a wizard that will guide you through the firmware update procedure.

In case the firmware update fails for any reason, and the module does no start anymore, simply unplug the module then plug it back while maintaining the Yocto-button down. The module will boot in "firmware update" mode and will appear in the VirtualHub interface below the module list.

19.2. The command line library

All the command line tools can update Yoctopuce modules thanks to the downloadAndUpdate command. The module selection mechanism works like for a traditional command. The [target] is the name of the module that you want to update. You can also use the "any" or "all" aliases, or even a name list, where the names are separated by commas, without spaces.


C:\>Executable [options] [target] command [parameters]

The following example updates all the Yoctopuce modules connected by USB.


C:\>YModule all downloadAndUpdate
ok: Yocto-PowerRelay RELAYHI1-266C8(rev=15430) is up to date.
ok: 0 / 0 hubs in 0.000000s.
ok: 0 / 0 shields in 0.000000s.
ok: 1 / 1 devices in 0.130000s 0.130000s per device.
ok: All devices are now up to date.
C:\>

19.3. The Android application Yocto-Firmware

You can update your module firmware from your Android phone or tablet with the Yocto-Firmware application. This application lists all the Yoctopuce modules connected by USB and checks if a more recent firmware is available on www.yoctopuce.com. If a more recent firmware is available, you can update the module. The application is responsible for downloading and installing the new firmware while preserving the module parameters.

Please note: while the firmware is being updated, the module restarts several times. Android interprets a USB device reboot as a disconnection and reconnection of the USB device and asks the authorization to use the USB port again. The user must click on OK for the update process to end successfully.

19.4. Updating the firmware with the programming library

If you need to integrate firmware updates in your application, the libraries offer you an API to update your modules. 49

Saving and restoring parameters

The get_allSettings() method returns a binary buffer enabling you to save a module persistent parameters. This function is very useful to save the network configuration of a YoctoHub for example.


YWireless wireless = YWireless.FindWireless("reference");
YModule m = wireless.get_module();
byte[] default_config =  m.get_allSettings();
saveFile("default.bin", default_config);
...

You can then apply these parameters to other modules with the set_allSettings() method.


byte[] default_config = loadFile("default.bin");
YModule m = YModule.FirstModule();
while (m != null) {
  if (m.get_productName() == "YoctoHub-Wireless") {
    m.set_allSettings(default_config);
  }
  m = m.next();
}

Finding the correct firmware

The first step to update a Yoctopuce module is to find which firmware you must use. The checkFirmware(path, onlynew) method of the YModule object does exactly this. The method checks that the firmware given as argument (path) is compatible with the module. If the onlynew parameter is set, this method checks that the firmware is more recent than the version currently used by the module. When the file is not compatible (or if the file is older than the installed version), this method returns an empty string. In the opposite, if the file is valid, the method returns a file access path.

The following piece of code checks that the c:\tmp\METEOMK1.17328.byn is compatible with the module stored in the m variable .


YModule m = YModule.FirstModule();
...
...
string path = "c:\\tmp\METEOMK1.17328.byn";
string newfirm = m.checkFirmware(path, false);
if (newfirm != "") {
  Console.WriteLine("firmware " + newfirm + " is compatible");
}
...

The argument can be a directory (instead of a file). In this case, the method checks all the files of the directory recursively and returns the most recent compatible firmware. The following piece of code checks whether there is a more recent firmware in the c:\tmp\ directory.


YModule m = YModule.FirstModule();
...
...
string path = "c:\\tmp";
string newfirm = m.checkFirmware(path, true);
if (newfirm != "") {
  Console.WriteLine("firmware " + newfirm + " is compatible and newer");
}
...

You can also give the "www.yoctopuce.com" string as argument to check whether there is a more recent published firmware on Yoctopuce's web site. In this case, the method returns the firmware URL. You can use this URL to download the firmware on your disk or use this URL when updating the firmware (see below). Obviously, this possibility works only if your machine is connected to Internet.


YModule m = YModule.FirstModule();
...
...
string url = m.checkFirmware("www.yoctopuce.com", true);
if (url != "") {
  Console.WriteLine("new firmware is available at " + url );
}
...

Updating the firmware

A firmware update can take several minutes. That is why the update process is run as a background task and is driven by the user code thanks to the YFirmwareUdpate class.

To update a Yoctopuce module, you must obtain an instance of the YFirmwareUdpate class with the updateFirmware method of a YModule object. The only parameter of this method is the path of the firmware that you want to install. This method does not immediately start the update, but returns a YFirmwareUdpate object configured to update the module.


string newfirm = m.checkFirmware("www.yoctopuce.com", true);
.....
YFirmwareUpdate fw_update = m.updateFirmware(newfirm);

The startUpdate() method starts the update as a background task. This background task automatically takes care of

  1. saving the module parameters
  2. restarting the module in "update" mode
  3. updating the firmware
  4. starting the module with the new firmware version
  5. restoring the parameters

The get_progress() and get_progressMessage() methods enable you to follow the progression of the update. get_progress() returns the progression as a percentage (100 = update complete). get_progressMessage() returns a character string describing the current operation (deleting, writing, rebooting, ...). If the get_progress method returns a negative value, the update process failed. In this case, the get_progressMessage() returns an error message.

The following piece of code starts the update and displays the progress on the standard output.


YFirmwareUpdate fw_update = m.updateFirmware(newfirm);
....
int status = fw_update.startUpdate();
while (status < 100 && status >= 0) {
  int newstatus = fw_update.get_progress();
  if (newstatus != status) {
    Console.WriteLine(status + "% "
      + fw_update.get_progressMessage());
  }
  YAPI.Sleep(500, ref errmsg);
  status = newstatus;
}

if (status < 0) {
  Console.WriteLine("Firmware Update failed: "
    + fw_update.get_progressMessage());
} else {
  Console.WriteLine("Firmware Updated Successfully!");
}

An Android characteristic

You can update a module firmware using the Android library. However, for modules connected by USB, Android asks the user to authorize the application to access the USB port.

During firmware update, the module restarts several times. Android interprets a USB device reboot as a disconnection and a reconnection to the USB port, and prevents all USB access as long as the user has not closed the pop-up window. The use has to click on OK for the update process to continue correctly. You cannot update a module connected by USB to an Android device without having the user interacting with the device.

19.5. The "update" mode

If you want to erase all the parameters of a module or if your module does not start correctly anymore, you can install a firmware from the "update" mode.

To force the module to work in "update" mode, disconnect it, wait a few seconds, and reconnect it while maintaining the Yocto-button down. This will restart the module in "update" mode. This update mode is protected against corruptions and is always available.

In this mode, the module is not detected by the YModule objects anymore. To obtain the list of connected modules in "update" mode, you must use the YAPI.GetAllBootLoaders() function. This function returns a character string array with the serial numbers of the modules in "update" mode.


List<string> allBootLoader = YAPI.GetAllBootLoaders();

The update process is identical to the standard case (see the preceding section), but you must manually instantiate the YFirmwareUpdate object instead of calling module.updateFirmware(). The constructor takes as argument three parameters: the module serial number, the path of the firmware to be installed, and a byte array with the parameters to be restored at the end of the update (or null to restore default parameters).


YFirmwareUpdateupdate fw_update;
fw_update = new YFirmwareUpdate(allBootLoader[0], newfirm, null);
int status = fw_update.startUpdate();
.....

20. Using with unsupported languages

Yoctopuce modules can be driven from most common programming languages. New languages are regularly added, depending on the interest expressed by Yoctopuce product users. Nevertheless, some languages are not, and will never be, supported by Yoctopuce. There can be several reasons for this: compilers which are not available anymore, unadapted environments, etc.

However, there are alternative methods to access Yoctopuce modules from an unsupported programming language.

20.1. Command line

The easiest method to drive Yoctopuce modules from an unsupported programming language is to use the command line API through system calls. The command line API is in fact made of a group of small executables which are easy to call. Their output is also easy to analyze. As most programming languages allow you to make system calls, the issue is solved with a few lines of code.

However, if the command line API is the easiest solution, it is neither the fastest nor the most efficient. For each call, the executable must initialize its own API and make an inventory of USB connected modules. This requires about one second per call.

20.2. VirtualHub and HTTP GET

The VirtualHub is available on almost all current platforms. It is generally used as a gateway to provide access to Yoctopuce modules from languages which prevent direct access to hardware layers of a computer (JavaScript, PHP, Java, ...).

In fact, the VirtualHub is a small web server able to route HTTP requests to Yoctopuce modules. This means that if you can make an HTTP request from your programming language, you can drive Yoctopuce modules, even if this language is not officially supported.

REST interface

At a low level, the modules are driven through a REST API. Thus, to control a module, you only need to perform appropriate requests on the VirtualHub. By default, the VirtualHub HTTP port is 4444.

An important advantage of this technique is that preliminary tests are very easy to implement. You only need a VirtualHub and a simple web browser. If you copy the following URL in your preferred browser, while the VirtualHub is running, you obtain the list of the connected modules.


http://127.0.0.1:4444/api/services/whitePages.txt

Note that the result is displayed as text, but if you request whitePages.xml, you obtain an XML result. Likewise, whitePages.json allows you to obtain a JSON result. The html extension even allows you to display a rough interface where you can modify values in real time. The whole REST API is available in these different formats.

Driving a module through the REST interface

Each Yoctopuce module has its own REST interface, available in several variants. Let us imagine a Yocto-Light with the LIGHTMK1-12345 serial number and the myModule logical name. The following URL allows you to know the state of the module.


http://127.0.0.1:4444/bySerial/LIGHTMK1-12345/api/module.txt

You can naturally also use the module logical name rather than its serial number.


http://127.0.0.1:4444/byName/myModule/api/module.txt

To retrieve the value of a module property, simply add the name of the property below module. For example, if you want to know the signposting led luminosity, send the following request:


http://127.0.0.1:4444/bySerial/LIGHTMK1-12345/api/module/luminosity

To change the value of a property, modify the corresponding attribute. Thus, to modify the luminosity, send the following request:


http://127.0.0.1:4444/bySerial/LIGHTMK1-12345/api/module?luminosity=100

Driving the module functions through the REST interface

The module functions can be manipulated in the same way. To know the state of the lightSensor function, build the following URL:


http://127.0.0.1:4444/bySerial/LIGHTMK1-12345/api/lightSensor.txt

Note that if you can use logical names for the modules instead of their serial number, you cannot use logical names for functions. Only hardware names are authorized to access functions.

You can retrieve a module function attribute in a way rather similar to that used with the modules. For example:


http://127.0.0.1:4444/bySerial/LIGHTMK1-12345/api/lightSensor/logicalName

Rather logically, attributes can be modified in the same manner.


http://127.0.0.1:4444/bySerial/LIGHTMK1-12345/api/lightSensor?logicalName=myFunction

You can find the list of available attributes for your Yocto-Light at the beginning of the Programming chapter.

Accessing Yoctopuce data logger through the REST interface

This section only applies to devices with a built-in data logger.

The preview of all recorded data streams can be retrieved in JSON format using the following URL:


http://127.0.0.1:4444/bySerial/LIGHTMK1-12345/dataLogger.json

Individual measures for any given stream can be obtained by appending the desired function identifier as well as start time of the stream:


http://127.0.0.1:4444/bySerial/LIGHTMK1-12345/dataLogger.json?id=lightSensor&utc=1389801080

20.3. Using dynamic libraries

The low level Yoctopuce API is available under several formats of dynamic libraries written in C. The sources are available with the C++ API. If you use one of these low level libraries, you do not need the VirtualHub anymore.

FilenamePlatform
libyapi.dylibMax OS X
libyapi-amd64.soLinux Intel (64 bits)
libyapi-armel.soLinux ARM EL
libyapi-armhf.soLinux ARM HL
libyapi-i386.soLinux Intel (32 bits)
yapi64.dllWindows (64 bits)
yapi.dllWindows (32 bits)

These dynamic libraries contain all the functions necessary to completely rebuild the whole high level API in any language able to integrate these libraries. This chapter nevertheless restrains itself to describing basic use of the modules.

Driving a module

The three essential functions of the low level API are the following:


int yapiInitAPI(int connection_type, char *errmsg);
int yapiUpdateDeviceList(int forceupdate, char *errmsg);
int yapiHTTPRequest(char *device, char *request, char* buffer,int buffsize,int *fullsize, char *errmsg);

The yapiInitAPI function initializes the API and must be called once at the beginning of the program. For a USB type connection, the connection_type parameter takes value 1. The errmsg parameter must point to a 255 character buffer to retrieve a potential error message. This pointer can also point to null. The function returns a negative integer in case of error, zero otherwise.

The yapiUpdateDeviceList manages the inventory of connected Yoctopuce modules. It must be called at least once. To manage hot plug and detect potential newly connected modules, this function must be called at regular intervals. The forceupdate parameter must take value 1 to force a hardware scan. The errmsg parameter must point to a 255 character buffer to retrieve a potential error message. This pointer can also point to null. The function returns a negative integer in case of error, zero otherwise.

Finally, the yapiHTTPRequest function sends HTTP requests to the module REST API. The device parameter contains the serial number or the logical name of the module which you want to reach. The request parameter contains the full HTTP request (including terminal line breaks). buffer points to a character buffer long enough to contain the answer. buffsize is the size of the buffer. fullsize is a pointer to an integer to which will be assigned the actual size of the answer. The errmsg parameter must point to a 255 character buffer to retrieve a potential error message. This pointer can also point to null. The function returns a negative integer in case of error, zero otherwise.

The format of the requests is the same as the one described in the VirtualHub et HTTP GET section. All the character strings used by the API are strings made of 8-bit characters: Unicode and UTF8 are not supported.

The resutlt returned in the buffer variable respects the HTTP protocol. It therefore includes an HTTP header. This header ends with two empty lines, that is a sequence of four ASCII characters 13, 10, 13, 10.

Here is a sample program written in pascal using the yapi.dll DLL to read and then update the luminosity of a module.


// Dll functions import
function  yapiInitAPI(mode:integer;
                      errmsg : pansichar):integer;cdecl;
                      external 'yapi.dll' name 'yapiInitAPI';
function  yapiUpdateDeviceList(force:integer;errmsg : pansichar):integer;cdecl;
                      external 'yapi.dll' name 'yapiUpdateDeviceList';
function  yapiHTTPRequest(device:pansichar;url:pansichar; buffer:pansichar;
                      buffsize:integer;var fullsize:integer;
                      errmsg : pansichar):integer;cdecl;
                      external 'yapi.dll' name 'yapiHTTPRequest';

var
 errmsgBuffer  : array [0..256] of ansichar;
 dataBuffer    : array [0..1024] of ansichar;
 errmsg,data   : pansichar;
 fullsize,p    : integer;

const
  serial      = 'LIGHTMK1-12345';
  getValue = 'GET /api/module/luminosity HTTP/1.1'#13#10#13#10;
  setValue = 'GET /api/module?luminosity=100 HTTP/1.1'#13#10#13#10;

begin
  errmsg  :=  @errmsgBuffer;
  data    :=  @dataBuffer;
  // API  initialization
  if(yapiInitAPI(1,errmsg)<0) then
   begin
    writeln(errmsg);
    halt;
  end;

  // forces a device inventory
  if( yapiUpdateDeviceList(1,errmsg)<0) then
    begin
     writeln(errmsg);
     halt;
   end;

  // requests the  module luminosity
  if (yapiHTTPRequest(serial,getValue,data,sizeof(dataBuffer),fullsize,errmsg)<0) then
   begin
     writeln(errmsg);
     halt;
   end;

  // searches for the HTTP header end
  p := pos(#13#10#13#10,data);

  // displays the response minus the HTTP header
  writeln(copy(data,p+4,length(data)-p-3));

  // changes the luminosity
  if (yapiHTTPRequest(serial,setValue,data,sizeof(dataBuffer),fullsize,errmsg)<0) then
   begin
     writeln(errmsg);
     halt;
   end;

end.

Module inventory

To perform an inventory of Yoctopuce modules, you need two functions from the dynamic library:


 int yapiGetAllDevices(int *buffer,int maxsize,int *neededsize,char *errmsg);
 int yapiGetDeviceInfo(int devdesc,yDeviceSt *infos, char *errmsg);

The yapiGetAllDevices function retrieves the list of all connected modules as a list of handles. buffer points to a 32-bit integer array which contains the returned handles. maxsize is the size in bytes of the buffer. To neededsize is assigned the necessary size to store all the handles. From this, you can deduce either the number of connected modules or that the input buffer is too small. The errmsg parameter must point to a 255 character buffer to retrieve a potential error message. This pointer can also point to null. The function returns a negative integer in case of error, zero otherwise.

The yapiGetDeviceInfo function retrieves the information related to a module from its handle. devdesc is a 32-bit integer representing the module and which was obtained through yapiGetAllDevices. infos points to a data structure in which the result is stored. This data structure has the following format:

Name TypeSize (bytes)Description
vendorid int4Yoctopuce USB ID
deviceid int4Module USB ID
devrelease int4Module version
nbinbterfaces int4Number of USB interfaces used by the module
manufacturer char[]20Yoctopuce (null terminated)
productname char[]28Model (null terminated)
serial char[]20Serial number (null terminated)
logicalname char[]20Logical name (null terminated)
firmware char[]22Firmware version (null terminated)
beacon byte1Beacon state (0/1)

The errmsg parameter must point to a 255 character buffer to retrieve a potential error message.

Here is a sample program written in pascal using the yapi.dll DLL to list the connected modules.


// device description structure
type yDeviceSt = packed record
   vendorid        : word;
   deviceid        : word;
   devrelease      : word;
   nbinbterfaces   : word;
   manufacturer    : array [0..19] of ansichar;
   productname     : array [0..27] of ansichar;
   serial          : array [0..19] of ansichar;
   logicalname     : array [0..19] of ansichar;
   firmware        : array [0..21] of ansichar;
   beacon          : byte;
 end;

// Dll function import
function  yapiInitAPI(mode:integer;
                      errmsg : pansichar):integer;cdecl;
                      external 'yapi.dll' name 'yapiInitAPI';

function  yapiUpdateDeviceList(force:integer;errmsg : pansichar):integer;cdecl;
                      external 'yapi.dll' name 'yapiUpdateDeviceList';

function  yapiGetAllDevices( buffer:pointer;
                             maxsize:integer;
                             var neededsize:integer;
                             errmsg : pansichar):integer; cdecl;
                             external 'yapi.dll' name 'yapiGetAllDevices';

function  apiGetDeviceInfo(d:integer; var infos:yDeviceSt;
                             errmsg : pansichar):integer;  cdecl;
                             external 'yapi.dll' name 'yapiGetDeviceInfo';


var
 errmsgBuffer  : array [0..256] of ansichar;
 dataBuffer    : array [0..127] of integer;   // max of 128 USB devices
 errmsg,data   : pansichar;
 neededsize,i  : integer;
 devinfos      : yDeviceSt;

begin
  errmsg  :=  @errmsgBuffer;

  // API  initialization
  if(yapiInitAPI(1,errmsg)<0) then
   begin
    writeln(errmsg);
    halt;
  end;

   // forces a device inventory
  if( yapiUpdateDeviceList(1,errmsg)<0) then
    begin
     writeln(errmsg);
     halt;
   end;

  // loads all device handles into dataBuffer
  if yapiGetAllDevices(@dataBuffer,sizeof(dataBuffer),neededsize,errmsg)<0 then
    begin
     writeln(errmsg);
     halt;
    end;

  // gets device info from each handle
  for i:=0 to  neededsize div sizeof(integer)-1 do
   begin
     if (apiGetDeviceInfo(dataBuffer[i], devinfos, errmsg)<0) then
       begin
         writeln(errmsg);
         halt;
       end;
     writeln(pansichar(@devinfos.serial)+' ('+pansichar(@devinfos.productname)+')');
   end;

end.

VB6 and yapi.dll

Each entry point from the yapi.dll is duplicated. You will find one regular C-decl version and one Visual Basic 6 compatible version, prefixed with vb6_.

20.4. Porting the high level library

As all the sources of the Yoctopuce API are fully provided, you can very well port the whole API in the language of your choice. Note, however, that a large portion of the API source code is automatically generated.

Therefore, it is not necessary for you to port the complete API. You only need to port the yocto_api file and one file corresponding to a function, for example yocto_relay. After a little additional work, Yoctopuce is then able to generate all other files. Therefore, we highly recommend that you contact Yoctopuce support before undertaking to port the Yoctopuce library in another language. Collaborative work is advantageous to both parties.

21. High-level API Reference

This chapter summarizes the high-level API functions to drive your Yocto-Light. Syntax and exact type names may vary from one language to another, but, unless otherwise stated, all the functions are available in every language. For detailed information regarding the types of arguments and return values for a given language, refer to the definition file for this language (yocto_api.* as well as the other yocto_* files that define the function interfaces).

For languages which support exceptions, all of these functions throw exceptions in case of error by default, rather than returning the documented error value for each function. This is by design, to facilitate debugging. It is however possible to disable the use of exceptions using the yDisableExceptions() function, in case you prefer to work with functions that return error values.

This chapter does not repeat the programming concepts described earlier, in order to stay as concise as possible. In case of doubt, do not hesitate to go back to the chapter describing in details all configurable attributes.

21.1. General functions

These general functions should be used to initialize and configure the Yoctopuce library. In most cases, a simple call to function yRegisterHub() should be enough. The module-specific functions yFind...() or yFirst...() should then be used to retrieve an object that provides interaction with the module.

In order to use the functions described here, you should include:

js
<script type='text/javascript' src='yocto_api.js'></script>
cpp
#include "yocto_api.h"
m
#import "yocto_api.h"
pas
uses yocto_api;
vb
yocto_api.vb
cs
yocto_api.cs
java
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YModule;
uwp
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YModule;
py
from yocto_api import *
php
require_once('yocto_api.php');
es
in HTML: <script src="../../lib/yocto_api.js"></script>
in node.js: require('yoctolib-es2017/yocto_api.js');
Global functions
yCheckLogicalName(name)

Checks if a given string is valid as logical name for a module or a function.

yClearHTTPCallbackCacheDir(bool_removeFiles)

Disables the HTTP callback cache.

yDisableExceptions()

Disables the use of exceptions to report runtime errors.

yEnableExceptions()

Re-enables the use of exceptions for runtime error handling.

yEnableUSBHost(osContext)

This function is used only on Android.

yFreeAPI()

Frees dynamically allocated memory blocks used by the Yoctopuce library.

yGetAPIVersion()

Returns the version identifier for the Yoctopuce library in use.

yGetTickCount()

Returns the current value of a monotone millisecond-based time counter.

yHandleEvents(errmsg)

Maintains the device-to-library communication channel.

yInitAPI(mode, errmsg)

Initializes the Yoctopuce programming library explicitly.

yPreregisterHub(url, errmsg)

Fault-tolerant alternative to RegisterHub().

yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(arrivalCallback)

Register a callback function, to be called each time a device is plugged.

yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(removalCallback)

Register a callback function, to be called each time a device is unplugged.

yRegisterHub(url, errmsg)

Setup the Yoctopuce library to use modules connected on a given machine.

yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback(hubDiscoveryCallback)

Register a callback function, to be called each time an Network Hub send an SSDP message.

yRegisterLogFunction(logfun)

Registers a log callback function.

ySelectArchitecture(arch)

Select the architecture or the library to be loaded to access to USB.

ySetDelegate(object)

(Objective-C only) Register an object that must follow the protocol YDeviceHotPlug.

ySetHTTPCallbackCacheDir(str_directory)

Enables the HTTP callback cache.

ySetTimeout(callback, ms_timeout, args)

Invoke the specified callback function after a given timeout.

ySetUSBPacketAckMs(pktAckDelay)

Enables the acknowledge of every USB packet received by the Yoctopuce library.

ySleep(ms_duration, errmsg)

Pauses the execution flow for a specified duration.

yTestHub(url, mstimeout, errmsg)

Test if the hub is reachable.

yTriggerHubDiscovery(errmsg)

Force a hub discovery, if a callback as been registered with yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback it will be called for each net work hub that will respond to the discovery.

yUnregisterHub(url)

Setup the Yoctopuce library to no more use modules connected on a previously registered machine with RegisterHub.

yUpdateDeviceList(errmsg)

Triggers a (re)detection of connected Yoctopuce modules.

yUpdateDeviceList_async(callback, context)

Triggers a (re)detection of connected Yoctopuce modules.

YAPI.CheckLogicalName()
yCheckLogicalName()
yCheckLogicalName()yCheckLogicalName()[YAPI CheckLogicalName: ]yCheckLogicalName()yCheckLogicalName()YAPI.CheckLogicalName()YAPI.CheckLogicalName()YAPI.CheckLogicalName()YAPI.CheckLogicalName()yCheckLogicalName()YAPI.CheckLogicalName()

Checks if a given string is valid as logical name for a module or a function.

js
function yCheckLogicalName(name)
cpp
bool yCheckLogicalName(const string& name)
m
+(BOOL) CheckLogicalName:(NSString *) name
pas
function yCheckLogicalName(name: string): boolean
vb
function yCheckLogicalName(ByVal name As String) As Boolean
cs
bool CheckLogicalName(string name)
java
boolean CheckLogicalName(String name)
uwp
bool CheckLogicalName(string name)
py
def CheckLogicalName(name)
php
function yCheckLogicalName($name)
es
function CheckLogicalName(name)

A valid logical name has a maximum of 19 characters, all among A..Z, a..z, 0..9, _, and -. If you try to configure a logical name with an incorrect string, the invalid characters are ignored.

Parameters :

namea string containing the name to check.

Returns :

true if the name is valid, false otherwise.

YAPI.ClearHTTPCallbackCacheDir()
yClearHTTPCallbackCacheDir()
yClearHTTPCallbackCacheDir()

Disables the HTTP callback cache.

php
function yClearHTTPCallbackCacheDir($bool_removeFiles)

This method disables the HTTP callback cache, and can additionally cleanup the cache directory.

Parameters :

bool_removeFilesTrue to clear the content of the cache.

Returns :

nothing.

YAPI.DisableExceptions()
yDisableExceptions()
yDisableExceptions()yDisableExceptions()[YAPI DisableExceptions]yDisableExceptions()yDisableExceptions()YAPI.DisableExceptions()YAPI.DisableExceptions()yDisableExceptions()YAPI.DisableExceptions()

Disables the use of exceptions to report runtime errors.

js
function yDisableExceptions()
cpp
void yDisableExceptions()
m
+(void) DisableExceptions
pas
procedure yDisableExceptions()
vb
procedure yDisableExceptions()
cs
void DisableExceptions()
py
def DisableExceptions()
php
function yDisableExceptions()
es
function DisableExceptions()

When exceptions are disabled, every function returns a specific error value which depends on its type and which is documented in this reference manual.

YAPI.EnableExceptions()
yEnableExceptions()
yEnableExceptions()yEnableExceptions()[YAPI EnableExceptions]yEnableExceptions()yEnableExceptions()YAPI.EnableExceptions()YAPI.EnableExceptions()yEnableExceptions()YAPI.EnableExceptions()

Re-enables the use of exceptions for runtime error handling.

js
function yEnableExceptions()
cpp
void yEnableExceptions()
m
+(void) EnableExceptions
pas
procedure yEnableExceptions()
vb
procedure yEnableExceptions()
cs
void EnableExceptions()
py
def EnableExceptions()
php
function yEnableExceptions()
es
function EnableExceptions()

Be aware than when exceptions are enabled, every function that fails triggers an exception. If the exception is not caught by the user code, it either fires the debugger or aborts (i.e. crash) the program. On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.EnableUSBHost()
yEnableUSBHost()
YAPI.EnableUSBHost()

This function is used only on Android.

java
void EnableUSBHost(Object osContext)

Before calling yRegisterHub("usb") you need to activate the USB host port of the system. This function takes as argument, an object of class android.content.Context (or any subclass). It is not necessary to call this function to reach modules through the network.

Parameters :

On failure, throws an exception.
osContextan object of class android.content.Context (or any subclass).

YAPI.FreeAPI()
yFreeAPI()
yFreeAPI()yFreeAPI()[YAPI FreeAPI]yFreeAPI()yFreeAPI()YAPI.FreeAPI()YAPI.FreeAPI()YAPI.FreeAPI()YAPI.FreeAPI()yFreeAPI()YAPI.FreeAPI()

Frees dynamically allocated memory blocks used by the Yoctopuce library.

js
function yFreeAPI()
cpp
void yFreeAPI()
m
+(void) FreeAPI
pas
procedure yFreeAPI()
vb
procedure yFreeAPI()
cs
void FreeAPI()
java
void FreeAPI()
uwp
void FreeAPI()
py
def FreeAPI()
php
function yFreeAPI()
es
function FreeAPI()

It is generally not required to call this function, unless you want to free all dynamically allocated memory blocks in order to track a memory leak for instance. You should not call any other library function after calling yFreeAPI(), or your program will crash.

YAPI.GetAPIVersion()
yGetAPIVersion()
yGetAPIVersion()yGetAPIVersion()[YAPI GetAPIVersion]yGetAPIVersion()yGetAPIVersion()YAPI.GetAPIVersion()YAPI.GetAPIVersion()YAPI.GetAPIVersion()YAPI.GetAPIVersion()yGetAPIVersion()YAPI.GetAPIVersion()

Returns the version identifier for the Yoctopuce library in use.

js
function yGetAPIVersion()
cpp
string yGetAPIVersion()
m
+(NSString*) GetAPIVersion
pas
function yGetAPIVersion(): string
vb
function yGetAPIVersion() As String
cs
String GetAPIVersion()
java
String GetAPIVersion()
uwp
string GetAPIVersion()
py
def GetAPIVersion()
php
function yGetAPIVersion()
es
function GetAPIVersion()

The version is a string in the form "Major.Minor.Build", for instance "1.01.5535". For languages using an external DLL (for instance C#, VisualBasic or Delphi), the character string includes as well the DLL version, for instance "1.01.5535 (1.01.5439)".

If you want to verify in your code that the library version is compatible with the version that you have used during development, verify that the major number is strictly equal and that the minor number is greater or equal. The build number is not relevant with respect to the library compatibility.

Returns :

a character string describing the library version.

YAPI.GetTickCount()
yGetTickCount()
yGetTickCount()yGetTickCount()[YAPI GetTickCount]yGetTickCount()yGetTickCount()YAPI.GetTickCount()YAPI.GetTickCount()YAPI.GetTickCount()YAPI.GetTickCount()yGetTickCount()YAPI.GetTickCount()

Returns the current value of a monotone millisecond-based time counter.

js
function yGetTickCount()
cpp
u64 yGetTickCount()
m
+(u64) GetTickCount
pas
function yGetTickCount(): u64
vb
function yGetTickCount() As Long
cs
ulong GetTickCount()
java
long GetTickCount()
uwp
ulong GetTickCount()
py
def GetTickCount()
php
function yGetTickCount()
es
function GetTickCount()

This counter can be used to compute delays in relation with Yoctopuce devices, which also uses the millisecond as timebase.

Returns :

a long integer corresponding to the millisecond counter.

YAPI.HandleEvents()
yHandleEvents()
yHandleEvents()yHandleEvents()[YAPI HandleEvents: ]yHandleEvents()yHandleEvents()YAPI.HandleEvents()YAPI.HandleEvents()YAPI.HandleEvents()YAPI.HandleEvents()yHandleEvents()YAPI.HandleEvents()

Maintains the device-to-library communication channel.

js
function yHandleEvents(errmsg)
cpp
YRETCODE yHandleEvents(string& errmsg)
m
+(YRETCODE) HandleEvents:(NSError**) errmsg
pas
function yHandleEvents(var errmsg: string): integer
vb
function yHandleEvents(ByRef errmsg As String) As YRETCODE
cs
YRETCODE HandleEvents(ref string errmsg)
java
int HandleEvents()
uwp
async Task<int> HandleEvents()
py
def HandleEvents(errmsg=None)
php
function yHandleEvents(&$errmsg)
es
function HandleEvents(errmsg)

If your program includes significant loops, you may want to include a call to this function to make sure that the library takes care of the information pushed by the modules on the communication channels. This is not strictly necessary, but it may improve the reactivity of the library for the following commands.

This function may signal an error in case there is a communication problem while contacting a module.

Parameters :

errmsga string passed by reference to receive any error message.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.InitAPI()
yInitAPI()
yInitAPI()yInitAPI()[YAPI InitAPI: ]yInitAPI()yInitAPI()YAPI.InitAPI()YAPI.InitAPI()YAPI.InitAPI()YAPI.InitAPI()yInitAPI()YAPI.InitAPI()

Initializes the Yoctopuce programming library explicitly.

js
function yInitAPI(mode, errmsg)
cpp
YRETCODE yInitAPI(int mode, string& errmsg)
m
+(YRETCODE) InitAPI:(int) mode :(NSError**) errmsg
pas
function yInitAPI(mode: integer, var errmsg: string): integer
vb
function yInitAPI(ByVal mode As Integer, ByRef errmsg As String) As Integer
cs
int InitAPI(int mode, ref string errmsg)
java
int InitAPI(int mode)
uwp
async Task<int> InitAPI(int mode)
py
def InitAPI(mode, errmsg=None)
php
function yInitAPI($mode, &$errmsg)
es
function InitAPI(mode, errmsg)

It is not strictly needed to call yInitAPI(), as the library is automatically initialized when calling yRegisterHub() for the first time.

When Y_DETECT_NONE is used as detection mode, you must explicitly use yRegisterHub() to point the API to the VirtualHub on which your devices are connected before trying to access them.

Parameters :

modean integer corresponding to the type of automatic device detection to use. Possible values are Y_DETECT_NONE, Y_DETECT_USB, Y_DETECT_NET, and Y_DETECT_ALL.
errmsga string passed by reference to receive any error message.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.PreregisterHub()
yPreregisterHub()
yPreregisterHub()yPreregisterHub()[YAPI PreregisterHub: ]yPreregisterHub()yPreregisterHub()YAPI.PreregisterHub()YAPI.PreregisterHub()YAPI.PreregisterHub()YAPI.PreregisterHub()yPreregisterHub()YAPI.PreregisterHub()

Fault-tolerant alternative to RegisterHub().

js
function yPreregisterHub(url, errmsg)
cpp
YRETCODE yPreregisterHub(const string& url, string& errmsg)
m
+(YRETCODE) PreregisterHub:(NSString *) url :(NSError**) errmsg
pas
function yPreregisterHub(url: string, var errmsg: string): integer
vb
function yPreregisterHub(ByVal url As String,
  ByRef errmsg As String) As Integer
cs
int PreregisterHub(string url, ref string errmsg)
java
int PreregisterHub(String url)
uwp
async Task<int> PreregisterHub(string url)
py
def PreregisterHub(url, errmsg=None)
php
function yPreregisterHub($url, &$errmsg)
es
function PreregisterHub(url, errmsg)

This function has the same purpose and same arguments as RegisterHub(), but does not trigger an error when the selected hub is not available at the time of the function call. This makes it possible to register a network hub independently of the current connectivity, and to try to contact it only when a device is actively needed.

Parameters :

urla string containing either "usb","callback" or the root URL of the hub to monitor
errmsga string passed by reference to receive any error message.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()
yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()
yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()[YAPI RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback: ]yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback()

Register a callback function, to be called each time a device is plugged.

js
function yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(arrivalCallback)
cpp
void yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(yDeviceUpdateCallback arrivalCallback)
m
+(void) RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback:(yDeviceUpdateCallback) arrivalCallback
pas
procedure yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(arrivalCallback: yDeviceUpdateFunc)
vb
procedure yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(ByVal arrivalCallback As yDeviceUpdateFunc)
cs
void RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(yDeviceUpdateFunc arrivalCallback)
java
void RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(DeviceArrivalCallback arrivalCallback)
uwp
void RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(DeviceUpdateHandler arrivalCallback)
py
def RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(arrivalCallback)
php
function yRegisterDeviceArrivalCallback($arrivalCallback)
es
function RegisterDeviceArrivalCallback(arrivalCallback)

This callback will be invoked while yUpdateDeviceList is running. You will have to call this function on a regular basis.

Parameters :

to unregister a previously registered callback.
arrivalCallbacka procedure taking a YModule parameter, or null

YAPI.RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()
yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()
yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()[YAPI RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback: ]yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()YAPI.RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback()

Register a callback function, to be called each time a device is unplugged.

js
function yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(removalCallback)
cpp
void yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(yDeviceUpdateCallback removalCallback)
m
+(void) RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback:(yDeviceUpdateCallback) removalCallback
pas
procedure yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(removalCallback: yDeviceUpdateFunc)
vb
procedure yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(ByVal removalCallback As yDeviceUpdateFunc)
cs
void RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(yDeviceUpdateFunc removalCallback)
java
void RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(DeviceRemovalCallback removalCallback)
uwp
void RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(DeviceUpdateHandler removalCallback)
py
def RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(removalCallback)
php
function yRegisterDeviceRemovalCallback($removalCallback)
es
function RegisterDeviceRemovalCallback(removalCallback)

This callback will be invoked while yUpdateDeviceList is running. You will have to call this function on a regular basis.

Parameters :

to unregister a previously registered callback.
removalCallbacka procedure taking a YModule parameter, or null

YAPI.RegisterHub()
yRegisterHub()
yRegisterHub()yRegisterHub()[YAPI RegisterHub: ]yRegisterHub()yRegisterHub()YAPI.RegisterHub()YAPI.RegisterHub()YAPI.RegisterHub()YAPI.RegisterHub()yRegisterHub()YAPI.RegisterHub()

Setup the Yoctopuce library to use modules connected on a given machine.

js
function yRegisterHub(url, errmsg)
cpp
YRETCODE yRegisterHub(const string& url, string& errmsg)
m
+(YRETCODE) RegisterHub:(NSString *) url :(NSError**) errmsg
pas
function yRegisterHub(url: string, var errmsg: string): integer
vb
function yRegisterHub(ByVal url As String,
  ByRef errmsg As String) As Integer
cs
int RegisterHub(string url, ref string errmsg)
java
int RegisterHub(String url)
uwp
async Task<int> RegisterHub(string url)
py
def RegisterHub(url, errmsg=None)
php
function yRegisterHub($url, &$errmsg)
es
function RegisterHub(url, errmsg)

The parameter will determine how the API will work. Use the following values:

usb: When the usb keyword is used, the API will work with devices connected directly to the USB bus. Some programming languages such a Javascript, PHP, and Java don't provide direct access to USB hardware, so usb will not work with these. In this case, use a VirtualHub or a networked YoctoHub (see below).

x.x.x.x or hostname: The API will use the devices connected to the host with the given IP address or hostname. That host can be a regular computer running a VirtualHub, or a networked YoctoHub such as YoctoHub-Ethernet or YoctoHub-Wireless. If you want to use the VirtualHub running on you local computer, use the IP address 127.0.0.1.

callback: that keyword make the API run in "HTTP Callback" mode. This a special mode allowing to take control of Yoctopuce devices through a NAT filter when using a VirtualHub or a networked YoctoHub. You only need to configure your hub to call your server script on a regular basis. This mode is currently available for PHP and Node.JS only.

Be aware that only one application can use direct USB access at a given time on a machine. Multiple access would cause conflicts while trying to access the USB modules. In particular, this means that you must stop the VirtualHub software before starting an application that uses direct USB access. The workaround for this limitation is to setup the library to use the VirtualHub rather than direct USB access.

If access control has been activated on the hub, virtual or not, you want to reach, the URL parameter should look like:

http://username:password@address:port

You can call RegisterHub several times to connect to several machines.

Parameters :

urla string containing either "usb","callback" or the root URL of the hub to monitor
errmsga string passed by reference to receive any error message.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()
yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()
yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()[YAPI RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback: ]yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()YAPI.RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()YAPI.RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()YAPI.RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()YAPI.RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback()

Register a callback function, to be called each time an Network Hub send an SSDP message.

cpp
void yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback(YHubDiscoveryCallback hubDiscoveryCallback)
m
+(void) RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback: (YHubDiscoveryCallback) hubDiscoveryCallback
pas
procedure yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback(hubDiscoveryCallback: YHubDiscoveryCallback)
vb
procedure yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback(ByVal hubDiscoveryCallback As YHubDiscoveryCallback)
cs
void RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback(YHubDiscoveryCallback hubDiscoveryCallback)
java
void RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback(HubDiscoveryCallback hubDiscoveryCallback)
uwp
async Task RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback(HubDiscoveryHandler hubDiscoveryCallback)
py
def RegisterHubDiscoveryCallback(hubDiscoveryCallback)

The callback has two string parameter, the first one contain the serial number of the hub and the second contain the URL of the network hub (this URL can be passed to RegisterHub). This callback will be invoked while yUpdateDeviceList is running. You will have to call this function on a regular basis.

Parameters :

number and the hub URL. Use null to unregister a previously registered callback.
hubDiscoveryCallbacka procedure taking two string parameter, the serial

YAPI.RegisterLogFunction()
yRegisterLogFunction()
yRegisterLogFunction()[YAPI RegisterLogFunction: ]yRegisterLogFunction()yRegisterLogFunction()YAPI.RegisterLogFunction()YAPI.RegisterLogFunction()YAPI.RegisterLogFunction()YAPI.RegisterLogFunction()

Registers a log callback function.

cpp
void yRegisterLogFunction(yLogFunction logfun)
m
+(void) RegisterLogFunction:(yLogCallback) logfun
pas
procedure yRegisterLogFunction(logfun: yLogFunc)
vb
procedure yRegisterLogFunction(ByVal logfun As yLogFunc)
cs
void RegisterLogFunction(yLogFunc logfun)
java
void RegisterLogFunction(LogCallback logfun)
uwp
void RegisterLogFunction(LogHandler logfun)
py
def RegisterLogFunction(logfun)

This callback will be called each time the API have something to say. Quite useful to debug the API.

Parameters :

to unregister a previously registered callback.
logfuna procedure taking a string parameter, or null

YAPI.SelectArchitecture()
ySelectArchitecture()
YAPI.SelectArchitecture()

Select the architecture or the library to be loaded to access to USB.

py
def SelectArchitecture(arch)

By default, the Python library automatically detects the appropriate library to use. However, for Linux ARM, it not possible to reliably distinguish between a Hard Float (armhf) and a Soft Float (armel) install. For in this case, it is therefore recommended to manually select the proper architecture by calling SelectArchitecture() before any other call to the library.

Parameters :

archA string containing the architecture to use. Possibles value are: "armhf","armel", "i386","x86_64","32bit", "64bit"

Returns :

nothing.

On failure, throws an exception.

YAPI.SetDelegate()
ySetDelegate()
[YAPI SetDelegate: ]

(Objective-C only) Register an object that must follow the protocol YDeviceHotPlug.

m
+(void) SetDelegate:(id) object

The methods yDeviceArrival and yDeviceRemoval will be invoked while yUpdateDeviceList is running. You will have to call this function on a regular basis.

Parameters :

to unregister a previously registered object.
objectan object that must follow the protocol YAPIDelegate, or nil

YAPI.SetHTTPCallbackCacheDir()
ySetHTTPCallbackCacheDir()
ySetHTTPCallbackCacheDir()

Enables the HTTP callback cache.

php
function ySetHTTPCallbackCacheDir($str_directory)

When enabled, this cache reduces the quantity of data sent to the PHP script by 50% to 70%. To enable this cache, the method ySetHTTPCallbackCacheDir() must be called before any call to yRegisterHub(). This method takes in parameter the path of the directory used for saving data between each callback. This folder must exist and the PHP script needs to have write access to it. It is recommended to use a folder that is not published on the Web server since the library will save some data of Yoctopuce devices into this folder.

Note: This feature is supported by YoctoHub and VirtualHub since version 27750.

Parameters :

str_directorythe path of the folder that will be used as cache.

Returns :

nothing.

On failure, throws an exception.

YAPI.SetTimeout()
ySetTimeout()
ySetTimeout()YAPI.SetTimeout()

Invoke the specified callback function after a given timeout.

js
function ySetTimeout(callback, ms_timeout, args)
es
function SetTimeout(callback, ms_timeout, args)

This function behaves more or less like Javascript setTimeout, but during the waiting time, it will call yHandleEvents and yUpdateDeviceList periodically, in order to keep the API up-to-date with current devices.

Parameters :

callbackthe function to call after the timeout occurs. On Microsoft Internet Explorer, the callback must be provided as a string to be evaluated.
ms_timeoutan integer corresponding to the duration of the timeout, in milliseconds.
argsadditional arguments to be passed to the callback function can be provided, if needed (not supported on Microsoft Internet Explorer).

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.SetUSBPacketAckMs()
ySetUSBPacketAckMs()
YAPI.SetUSBPacketAckMs()

Enables the acknowledge of every USB packet received by the Yoctopuce library.

java
void SetUSBPacketAckMs(int pktAckDelay)

This function allows the library to run on Android phones that tend to loose USB packets. By default, this feature is disabled because it doubles the number of packets sent and slows down the API considerably. Therefore, the acknowledge of incoming USB packets should only be enabled on phones or tablets that loose USB packets. A delay of 50 milliseconds is generally enough. In case of doubt, contact Yoctopuce support. To disable USB packets acknowledge, call this function with the value 0. Note: this feature is only available on Android.

Parameters :

resend the last USB packet.
pktAckDelaythen number of milliseconds before the module

YAPI.Sleep()
ySleep()
ySleep()ySleep()[YAPI Sleep: ]ySleep()ySleep()YAPI.Sleep()YAPI.Sleep()YAPI.Sleep()YAPI.Sleep()ySleep()YAPI.Sleep()

Pauses the execution flow for a specified duration.

js
function ySleep(ms_duration, errmsg)
cpp
YRETCODE ySleep(unsigned ms_duration, string& errmsg)
m
+(YRETCODE) Sleep:(unsigned) ms_duration :(NSError **) errmsg
pas
function ySleep(ms_duration: integer, var errmsg: string): integer
vb
function ySleep(ByVal ms_duration As Integer,
  ByRef errmsg As String) As Integer
cs
int Sleep(int ms_duration, ref string errmsg)
java
int Sleep(long ms_duration)
uwp
async Task<int> Sleep(ulong ms_duration)
py
def Sleep(ms_duration, errmsg=None)
php
function ySleep($ms_duration, &$errmsg)
es
function Sleep(ms_duration, errmsg)

This function implements a passive waiting loop, meaning that it does not consume CPU cycles significantly. The processor is left available for other threads and processes. During the pause, the library nevertheless reads from time to time information from the Yoctopuce modules by calling yHandleEvents(), in order to stay up-to-date.

This function may signal an error in case there is a communication problem while contacting a module.

Parameters :

ms_durationan integer corresponding to the duration of the pause, in milliseconds.
errmsga string passed by reference to receive any error message.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.TestHub()
yTestHub()
yTestHub()[YAPI TestHub: ]yTestHub()yTestHub()YAPI.TestHub()YAPI.TestHub()YAPI.TestHub()YAPI.TestHub()yTestHub()YAPI.TestHub()

Test if the hub is reachable.

cpp
YRETCODE yTestHub(const string& url, int mstimeout, string& errmsg)
m
+(YRETCODE) TestHub: (NSString*) url
  : (int) mstimeout
  : (NSError**) errmsg
pas
function yTestHub(url: string,
  mstimeout: integer,
  var errmsg: string): integer
vb
function yTestHub(ByVal url As String,
  ByVal mstimeout As Integer,
  ByRef errmsg As String) As Integer
cs
int TestHub(string url, int mstimeout, ref string errmsg)
java
int TestHub(String url, int mstimeout)
uwp
async Task<int> TestHub(string url, uint mstimeout)
py
def TestHub(url, mstimeout, errmsg=None)
php
function yTestHub($url, $mstimeout, &$errmsg)
es
function TestHub(url, mstimeout)

This method do not register the hub, it only test if the hub is usable. The url parameter follow the same convention as the RegisterHub method. This method is useful to verify the authentication parameters for a hub. It is possible to force this method to return after mstimeout milliseconds.

Parameters :

urla string containing either "usb","callback" or the root URL of the hub to monitor
mstimeoutthe number of millisecond available to test the connection.
errmsga string passed by reference to receive any error message.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure returns a negative error code.

YAPI.TriggerHubDiscovery()
yTriggerHubDiscovery()
yTriggerHubDiscovery()[YAPI TriggerHubDiscovery: ]yTriggerHubDiscovery()yTriggerHubDiscovery()YAPI.TriggerHubDiscovery()YAPI.TriggerHubDiscovery()YAPI.TriggerHubDiscovery()YAPI.TriggerHubDiscovery()

Force a hub discovery, if a callback as been registered with yRegisterHubDiscoveryCallback it will be called for each net work hub that will respond to the discovery.

cpp
YRETCODE yTriggerHubDiscovery(string& errmsg)
m
+(YRETCODE) TriggerHubDiscovery: (NSError**) errmsg
pas
function yTriggerHubDiscovery(var errmsg: string): integer
vb
function yTriggerHubDiscovery(ByRef errmsg As String) As Integer
cs
int TriggerHubDiscovery(ref string errmsg)
java
int TriggerHubDiscovery()
uwp
async Task<int> TriggerHubDiscovery()
py
def TriggerHubDiscovery(errmsg=None)

Parameters :

errmsga string passed by reference to receive any error message.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds. On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.UnregisterHub()
yUnregisterHub()
yUnregisterHub()yUnregisterHub()[YAPI UnregisterHub: ]yUnregisterHub()yUnregisterHub()YAPI.UnregisterHub()YAPI.UnregisterHub()YAPI.UnregisterHub()YAPI.UnregisterHub()yUnregisterHub()YAPI.UnregisterHub()

Setup the Yoctopuce library to no more use modules connected on a previously registered machine with RegisterHub.

js
function yUnregisterHub(url)
cpp
void yUnregisterHub(const string& url)
m
+(void) UnregisterHub:(NSString *) url
pas
procedure yUnregisterHub(url: string)
vb
procedure yUnregisterHub(ByVal url As String)
cs
void UnregisterHub(string url)
java
void UnregisterHub(String url)
uwp
async Task UnregisterHub(string url)
py
def UnregisterHub(url)
php
function yUnregisterHub($url)
es
function UnregisterHub(url)

Parameters :

root URL of the hub to monitor
urla string containing either "usb" or the

YAPI.UpdateDeviceList()
yUpdateDeviceList()
yUpdateDeviceList()yUpdateDeviceList()[YAPI UpdateDeviceList: ]yUpdateDeviceList()yUpdateDeviceList()YAPI.UpdateDeviceList()YAPI.UpdateDeviceList()YAPI.UpdateDeviceList()YAPI.UpdateDeviceList()yUpdateDeviceList()YAPI.UpdateDeviceList()

Triggers a (re)detection of connected Yoctopuce modules.

js
function yUpdateDeviceList(errmsg)
cpp
YRETCODE yUpdateDeviceList(string& errmsg)
m
+(YRETCODE) UpdateDeviceList:(NSError**) errmsg
pas
function yUpdateDeviceList(var errmsg: string): integer
vb
function yUpdateDeviceList(ByRef errmsg As String) As YRETCODE
cs
YRETCODE UpdateDeviceList(ref string errmsg)
java
int UpdateDeviceList()
uwp
async Task<int> UpdateDeviceList()
py
def UpdateDeviceList(errmsg=None)
php
function yUpdateDeviceList(&$errmsg)
es
function UpdateDeviceList(errmsg)

The library searches the machines or USB ports previously registered using yRegisterHub(), and invokes any user-defined callback function in case a change in the list of connected devices is detected.

This function can be called as frequently as desired to refresh the device list and to make the application aware of hot-plug events.

Parameters :

errmsga string passed by reference to receive any error message.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

YAPI.UpdateDeviceList_async()
yUpdateDeviceList_async()
yUpdateDeviceList_async()

Triggers a (re)detection of connected Yoctopuce modules.

js
function yUpdateDeviceList_async(callback, context)

The library searches the machines or USB ports previously registered using yRegisterHub(), and invokes any user-defined callback function in case a change in the list of connected devices is detected.

This function can be called as frequently as desired to refresh the device list and to make the application aware of hot-plug events.

This asynchronous version exists only in Javascript. It uses a callback instead of a return value in order to avoid blocking Firefox Javascript VM that does not implement context switching during blocking I/O calls.

Parameters :

callbackcallback function that is invoked when the result is known. The callback function receives three arguments: the caller-specific context object, the result code (YAPI_SUCCESS if the operation completes successfully) and the error message.
contextcaller-specific object that is passed as-is to the callback function

Returns :

nothing : the result is provided to the callback.

21.2. Module control interface

This interface is identical for all Yoctopuce USB modules. It can be used to control the module global parameters, and to enumerate the functions provided by each module.

In order to use the functions described here, you should include:

js
<script type='text/javascript' src='yocto_api.js'></script>
cpp
#include "yocto_api.h"
m
#import "yocto_api.h"
pas
uses yocto_api;
vb
yocto_api.vb
cs
yocto_api.cs
java
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YModule;
uwp
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YModule;
py
from yocto_api import *
php
require_once('yocto_api.php');
es
in HTML: <script src="../../lib/yocto_api.js"></script>
in node.js: require('yoctolib-es2017/yocto_api.js');
Global functions
yFindModule(func)

Allows you to find a module from its serial number or from its logical name.

yFindModuleInContext(yctx, func)

Retrieves a module for a given identifier in a YAPI context.

yFirstModule()

Starts the enumeration of modules currently accessible.

YModule methods
module→checkFirmware(path, onlynew)

Tests whether the byn file is valid for this module.

module→clearCache()

Invalidates the cache.

module→describe()

Returns a descriptive text that identifies the module.

module→download(pathname)

Downloads the specified built-in file and returns a binary buffer with its content.

module→functionBaseType(functionIndex)

Retrieves the base type of the nth function on the module.

module→functionCount()

Returns the number of functions (beside the "module" interface) available on the module.

module→functionId(functionIndex)

Retrieves the hardware identifier of the nth function on the module.

module→functionName(functionIndex)

Retrieves the logical name of the nth function on the module.

module→functionType(functionIndex)

Retrieves the type of the nth function on the module.

module→functionValue(functionIndex)

Retrieves the advertised value of the nth function on the module.

module→get_allSettings()

Returns all the settings and uploaded files of the module.

module→get_beacon()

Returns the state of the localization beacon.

module→get_errorMessage()

Returns the error message of the latest error with this module object.

module→get_errorType()

Returns the numerical error code of the latest error with this module object.

module→get_firmwareRelease()

Returns the version of the firmware embedded in the module.

module→get_functionIds(funType)

Retrieve all hardware identifier that match the type passed in argument.

module→get_hardwareId()

Returns the unique hardware identifier of the module.

module→get_icon2d()

Returns the icon of the module.

module→get_lastLogs()

Returns a string with last logs of the module.

module→get_logicalName()

Returns the logical name of the module.

module→get_luminosity()

Returns the luminosity of the module informative leds (from 0 to 100).

module→get_parentHub()

Returns the serial number of the YoctoHub on which this module is connected.

module→get_persistentSettings()

Returns the current state of persistent module settings.

module→get_productId()

Returns the USB device identifier of the module.

module→get_productName()

Returns the commercial name of the module, as set by the factory.

module→get_productRelease()

Returns the hardware release version of the module.

module→get_rebootCountdown()

Returns the remaining number of seconds before the module restarts, or zero when no reboot has been scheduled.

module→get_serialNumber()

Returns the serial number of the module, as set by the factory.

module→get_subDevices()

Returns a list of all the modules that are plugged into the current module.

module→get_upTime()

Returns the number of milliseconds spent since the module was powered on.

module→get_url()

Returns the URL used to access the module.

module→get_usbCurrent()

Returns the current consumed by the module on the USB bus, in milli-amps.

module→get_userData()

Returns the value of the userData attribute, as previously stored using method set_userData.

module→get_userVar()

Returns the value previously stored in this attribute.

module→hasFunction(funcId)

Tests if the device includes a specific function.

module→isOnline()

Checks if the module is currently reachable, without raising any error.

module→isOnline_async(callback, context)

Checks if the module is currently reachable, without raising any error.

module→load(msValidity)

Preloads the module cache with a specified validity duration.

module→load_async(msValidity, callback, context)

Preloads the module cache with a specified validity duration (asynchronous version).

module→log(text)

Adds a text message to the device logs.

module→nextModule()

Continues the module enumeration started using yFirstModule().

module→reboot(secBeforeReboot)

Schedules a simple module reboot after the given number of seconds.

module→registerLogCallback(callback)

Registers a device log callback function.

module→revertFromFlash()

Reloads the settings stored in the nonvolatile memory, as when the module is powered on.

module→saveToFlash()

Saves current settings in the nonvolatile memory of the module.

module→set_allSettings(settings)

Restores all the settings of the device.

module→set_allSettingsAndFiles(settings)

Restores all the settings and uploaded files to the module.

module→set_beacon(newval)

Turns on or off the module localization beacon.

module→set_logicalName(newval)

Changes the logical name of the module.

module→set_luminosity(newval)

Changes the luminosity of the module informative leds.

module→set_userData(data)

Stores a user context provided as argument in the userData attribute of the function.

module→set_userVar(newval)

Stores a 32 bit value in the device RAM.

module→triggerFirmwareUpdate(secBeforeReboot)

Schedules a module reboot into special firmware update mode.

module→updateFirmware(path)

Prepares a firmware update of the module.

module→updateFirmwareEx(path, force)

Prepares a firmware update of the module.

module→wait_async(callback, context)

Waits for all pending asynchronous commands on the module to complete, and invoke the user-provided callback function.

YModule.FindModule()
yFindModule()
yFindModule()yFindModule()[YModule FindModule: ]yFindModule()yFindModule()YModule.FindModule()YModule.FindModule()YModule.FindModule()YModule.FindModule()yFindModule()YModule.FindModule()

Allows you to find a module from its serial number or from its logical name.

js
function yFindModule(func)
cpp
YModule* yFindModule(string func)
m
+(YModule*) FindModule: (NSString*) func
pas
function yFindModule(func: string): TYModule
vb
function yFindModule(ByVal func As String) As YModule
cs
YModule FindModule(string func)
java
YModule FindModule(String func)
uwp
YModule FindModule(string func)
py
def FindModule(func)
php
function yFindModule($func)
es
function FindModule(func)

This function does not require that the module is online at the time it is invoked. The returned object is nevertheless valid. Use the method YModule.isOnline() to test if the module is indeed online at a given time. In case of ambiguity when looking for a module by logical name, no error is notified: the first instance found is returned. The search is performed first by hardware name, then by logical name. If a call to this object's is_online() method returns FALSE although you are certain that the device is plugged, make sure that you did call registerHub() at application initialization time.

Parameters :

funca string containing either the serial number or the logical name of the desired module

Returns :

a YModule object allowing you to drive the module or get additional information on the module.

YModule.FindModuleInContext()
yFindModuleInContext()
YModule.FindModuleInContext()YModule.FindModuleInContext()YModule.FindModuleInContext()

Retrieves a module for a given identifier in a YAPI context.

java
YModule FindModuleInContext(YAPIContext yctx, String func)
uwp
YModule FindModuleInContext(YAPIContext yctx, string func)
es
function FindModuleInContext(yctx, func)

The identifier can be specified using several formats:

This function does not require that the module is online at the time it is invoked. The returned object is nevertheless valid. Use the method YModule.isOnline() to test if the module is indeed online at a given time. In case of ambiguity when looking for a module by logical name, no error is notified: the first instance found is returned. The search is performed first by hardware name, then by logical name.

Parameters :

yctxa YAPI context
funca string that uniquely characterizes the module

Returns :

a YModule object allowing you to drive the module.

YModule.FirstModule()
yFirstModule()
yFirstModule()yFirstModule()[YModule FirstModule]yFirstModule()yFirstModule()YModule.FirstModule()YModule.FirstModule()YModule.FirstModule()YModule.FirstModule()yFirstModule()YModule.FirstModule()

Starts the enumeration of modules currently accessible.

js
function yFirstModule()
cpp
YModule* yFirstModule()
m
+(YModule*) FirstModule
pas
function yFirstModule(): TYModule
vb
function yFirstModule() As YModule
cs
YModule FirstModule()
java
YModule FirstModule()
uwp
YModule FirstModule()
py
def FirstModule()
php
function yFirstModule()
es
function FirstModule()

Use the method YModule.nextModule() to iterate on the next modules.

Returns :

a pointer to a YModule object, corresponding to the first module currently online, or a null pointer if there are none.

module→checkFirmware()module.checkFirmware()module→checkFirmware()[module checkFirmware: ]module.checkFirmware()module.checkFirmware()module.checkFirmware()module.checkFirmware()module.checkFirmware()module.checkFirmware()module→checkFirmware()module.checkFirmware()YModule checkFirmware

Tests whether the byn file is valid for this module.

js
function checkFirmware(path, onlynew)
cpp
string checkFirmware(string path, bool onlynew)
m
-(NSString*) checkFirmware: (NSString*) path
  : (bool) onlynew
pas
function checkFirmware(path: string, onlynew: boolean): string
vb
function checkFirmware() As String
cs
string checkFirmware(string path, bool onlynew)
java
String checkFirmware(String path, boolean onlynew)
uwp
async Task<string> checkFirmware(string path, bool onlynew)
py
def checkFirmware(path, onlynew)
php
function checkFirmware($path, $onlynew)
es
function checkFirmware(path, onlynew)
cmd
YModule target checkFirmware path onlynew

This method is useful to test if the module needs to be updated. It is possible to pass a directory as argument instead of a file. In this case, this method returns the path of the most recent appropriate .byn file. If the parameter onlynew is true, the function discards firmwares that are older or equal to the installed firmware.

Parameters :

paththe path of a byn file or a directory that contains byn files
onlynewreturns only files that are strictly newer

Returns :

the path of the byn file to use or a empty string if no byn files matches the requirement

On failure, throws an exception or returns a string that start with "error:".

module→clearCache()module.clearCache()module→clearCache()[module clearCache]module.clearCache()module.clearCache()module.clearCache()module.clearCache()module.clearCache()module→clearCache()module.clearCache()

Invalidates the cache.

js
function clearCache()
cpp
void clearCache()
m
-(void) clearCache
pas
procedure clearCache()
vb
procedure clearCache()
cs
void clearCache()
java
void clearCache()
py
def clearCache()
php
function clearCache()
es
function clearCache()

Invalidates the cache of the module attributes. Forces the next call to get_xxx() or loadxxx() to use values that come from the device.

module→describe()module.describe()module→describe()[module describe]module.describe()module.describe()module.describe()module.describe()module.describe()module→describe()module.describe()

Returns a descriptive text that identifies the module.

js
function describe()
cpp
string describe()
m
-(NSString*) describe
pas
function describe(): string
vb
function describe() As String
cs
string describe()
java
String describe()
py
def describe()
php
function describe()
es
function describe()

The text may include either the logical name or the serial number of the module.

Returns :

a string that describes the module

module→download()module.download()module→download()[module download: ]module.download()module.download()module.download()module.download()module.download()module.download()module→download()module.download()YModule download

Downloads the specified built-in file and returns a binary buffer with its content.

js
function download(pathname)
cpp
string download(string pathname)
m
-(NSMutableData*) download: (NSString*) pathname
pas
function download(pathname: string): TByteArray
vb
function download() As Byte
cs
byte[] download(string pathname)
java
byte[] download(String pathname)
uwp
async Task<byte[]> download(string pathname)
py
def download(pathname)
php
function download($pathname)
es
function download(pathname)
cmd
YModule target download pathname

Parameters :

pathnamename of the new file to load

Returns :

a binary buffer with the file content

On failure, throws an exception or returns YAPI_INVALID_STRING.

module→functionBaseType()module.functionBaseType()module→functionBaseType()module.functionBaseType()module.functionBaseType()module.functionBaseType()module.functionBaseType()module.functionBaseType()module→functionBaseType()module.functionBaseType()

Retrieves the base type of the nth function on the module.

js
function functionBaseType(functionIndex)
cpp
string functionBaseType(int functionIndex)
pas
function functionBaseType(functionIndex: integer): string
vb
function functionBaseType(ByVal functionIndex As Integer) As String
cs
string functionBaseType(int functionIndex)
java
String functionBaseType(int functionIndex)
py
def functionBaseType(functionIndex)
php
function functionBaseType($functionIndex)
es
function functionBaseType(functionIndex)

For instance, the base type of all measuring functions is "Sensor".

Parameters :

functionIndexthe index of the function for which the information is desired, starting at 0 for the first function.

Returns :

a string corresponding to the base type of the function

On failure, throws an exception or returns an empty string.

module→functionCount()module.functionCount()module→functionCount()[module functionCount]module.functionCount()module.functionCount()module.functionCount()module.functionCount()module.functionCount()module→functionCount()module.functionCount()

Returns the number of functions (beside the "module" interface) available on the module.

js
function functionCount()
cpp
int functionCount()
m
-(int) functionCount
pas
function functionCount(): integer
vb
function functionCount() As Integer
cs
int functionCount()
java
int functionCount()
py
def functionCount()
php
function functionCount()
es
function functionCount()

Returns :

the number of functions on the module

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→functionId()module.functionId()module→functionId()[module functionId: ]module.functionId()module.functionId()module.functionId()module.functionId()module.functionId()module→functionId()module.functionId()

Retrieves the hardware identifier of the nth function on the module.

js
function functionId(functionIndex)
cpp
string functionId(int functionIndex)
m
-(NSString*) functionId: (int) functionIndex
pas
function functionId(functionIndex: integer): string
vb
function functionId(ByVal functionIndex As Integer) As String
cs
string functionId(int functionIndex)
java
String functionId(int functionIndex)
py
def functionId(functionIndex)
php
function functionId($functionIndex)
es
function functionId(functionIndex)

Parameters :

functionIndexthe index of the function for which the information is desired, starting at 0 for the first function.

Returns :

a string corresponding to the unambiguous hardware identifier of the requested module function

On failure, throws an exception or returns an empty string.

module→functionName()module.functionName()module→functionName()[module functionName: ]module.functionName()module.functionName()module.functionName()module.functionName()module.functionName()module→functionName()module.functionName()

Retrieves the logical name of the nth function on the module.

js
function functionName(functionIndex)
cpp
string functionName(int functionIndex)
m
-(NSString*) functionName: (int) functionIndex
pas
function functionName(functionIndex: integer): string
vb
function functionName(ByVal functionIndex As Integer) As String
cs
string functionName(int functionIndex)
java
String functionName(int functionIndex)
py
def functionName(functionIndex)
php
function functionName($functionIndex)
es
function functionName(functionIndex)

Parameters :

functionIndexthe index of the function for which the information is desired, starting at 0 for the first function.

Returns :

a string corresponding to the logical name of the requested module function

On failure, throws an exception or returns an empty string.

module→functionType()module.functionType()module→functionType()module.functionType()module.functionType()module.functionType()module.functionType()module.functionType()module→functionType()module.functionType()

Retrieves the type of the nth function on the module.

js
function functionType(functionIndex)
cpp
string functionType(int functionIndex)
pas
function functionType(functionIndex: integer): string
vb
function functionType(ByVal functionIndex As Integer) As String
cs
string functionType(int functionIndex)
java
String functionType(int functionIndex)
py
def functionType(functionIndex)
php
function functionType($functionIndex)
es
function functionType(functionIndex)

Parameters :

functionIndexthe index of the function for which the information is desired, starting at 0 for the first function.

Returns :

a string corresponding to the type of the function

On failure, throws an exception or returns an empty string.

module→functionValue()module.functionValue()module→functionValue()[module functionValue: ]module.functionValue()module.functionValue()module.functionValue()module.functionValue()module.functionValue()module→functionValue()module.functionValue()

Retrieves the advertised value of the nth function on the module.

js
function functionValue(functionIndex)
cpp
string functionValue(int functionIndex)
m
-(NSString*) functionValue: (int) functionIndex
pas
function functionValue(functionIndex: integer): string
vb
function functionValue(ByVal functionIndex As Integer) As String
cs
string functionValue(int functionIndex)
java
String functionValue(int functionIndex)
py
def functionValue(functionIndex)
php
function functionValue($functionIndex)
es
function functionValue(functionIndex)

Parameters :

functionIndexthe index of the function for which the information is desired, starting at 0 for the first function.

Returns :

a short string (up to 6 characters) corresponding to the advertised value of the requested module function

On failure, throws an exception or returns an empty string.

module→get_allSettings()
module→allSettings()
module.get_allSettings()module→get_allSettings()[module allSettings]module.get_allSettings()module.get_allSettings()module.get_allSettings()module.get_allSettings()module.get_allSettings()module.get_allSettings()module→get_allSettings()module.get_allSettings()YModule get_allSettings

Returns all the settings and uploaded files of the module.

js
function get_allSettings()
cpp
string get_allSettings()
m
-(NSMutableData*) allSettings
pas
function get_allSettings(): TByteArray
vb
function get_allSettings() As Byte
cs
byte[] get_allSettings()
java
byte[] get_allSettings()
uwp
async Task<byte[]> get_allSettings()
py
def get_allSettings()
php
function get_allSettings()
es
function get_allSettings()
cmd
YModule target get_allSettings

Useful to backup all the logical names, calibrations parameters, and uploaded files of a device.

Returns :

a binary buffer with all the settings.

On failure, throws an exception or returns an binary object of size 0.

module→get_beacon()
module→beacon()
module.get_beacon()module→get_beacon()[module beacon]module.get_beacon()module.get_beacon()module.get_beacon()module.get_beacon()module.get_beacon()module.get_beacon()module→get_beacon()module.get_beacon()YModule get_beacon

Returns the state of the localization beacon.

js
function get_beacon()
cpp
Y_BEACON_enum get_beacon()
m
-(Y_BEACON_enum) beacon
pas
function get_beacon(): Integer
vb
function get_beacon() As Integer
cs
int get_beacon()
java
int get_beacon()
uwp
async Task<int> get_beacon()
py
def get_beacon()
php
function get_beacon()
es
function get_beacon()
cmd
YModule target get_beacon

Returns :

either Y_BEACON_OFF or Y_BEACON_ON, according to the state of the localization beacon

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_BEACON_INVALID.

module→get_errorMessage()
module→errorMessage()
module.get_errorMessage()module→get_errorMessage()[module errorMessage]module.get_errorMessage()module.get_errorMessage()module.get_errorMessage()module.get_errorMessage()module.get_errorMessage()module→get_errorMessage()module.get_errorMessage()

Returns the error message of the latest error with this module object.

js
function get_errorMessage()
cpp
string get_errorMessage()
m
-(NSString*) errorMessage
pas
function get_errorMessage(): string
vb
function get_errorMessage() As String
cs
string get_errorMessage()
java
String get_errorMessage()
py
def get_errorMessage()
php
function get_errorMessage()
es
function get_errorMessage()

This method is mostly useful when using the Yoctopuce library with exceptions disabled.

Returns :

a string corresponding to the latest error message that occured while using this module object

module→get_errorType()
module→errorType()
module.get_errorType()module→get_errorType()module.get_errorType()module.get_errorType()module.get_errorType()module.get_errorType()module.get_errorType()module→get_errorType()module.get_errorType()

Returns the numerical error code of the latest error with this module object.

js
function get_errorType()
cpp
YRETCODE get_errorType()
pas
function get_errorType(): YRETCODE
vb
function get_errorType() As YRETCODE
cs
YRETCODE get_errorType()
java
int get_errorType()
py
def get_errorType()
php
function get_errorType()
es
function get_errorType()

This method is mostly useful when using the Yoctopuce library with exceptions disabled.

Returns :

a number corresponding to the code of the latest error that occurred while using this module object

module→get_firmwareRelease()
module→firmwareRelease()
module.get_firmwareRelease()module→get_firmwareRelease()[module firmwareRelease]module.get_firmwareRelease()module.get_firmwareRelease()module.get_firmwareRelease()module.get_firmwareRelease()module.get_firmwareRelease()module.get_firmwareRelease()module→get_firmwareRelease()module.get_firmwareRelease()YModule get_firmwareRelease

Returns the version of the firmware embedded in the module.

js
function get_firmwareRelease()
cpp
string get_firmwareRelease()
m
-(NSString*) firmwareRelease
pas
function get_firmwareRelease(): string
vb
function get_firmwareRelease() As String
cs
string get_firmwareRelease()
java
String get_firmwareRelease()
uwp
async Task<string> get_firmwareRelease()
py
def get_firmwareRelease()
php
function get_firmwareRelease()
es
function get_firmwareRelease()
cmd
YModule target get_firmwareRelease

Returns :

a string corresponding to the version of the firmware embedded in the module

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_FIRMWARERELEASE_INVALID.

module→get_functionIds()
module→functionIds()
module.get_functionIds()module→get_functionIds()[module functionIds: ]module.get_functionIds()module.get_functionIds()module.get_functionIds()module.get_functionIds()module.get_functionIds()module.get_functionIds()module→get_functionIds()module.get_functionIds()YModule get_functionIds

Retrieve all hardware identifier that match the type passed in argument.

js
function get_functionIds(funType)
cpp
vector<string> get_functionIds(string funType)
m
-(NSMutableArray*) functionIds: (NSString*) funType
pas
function get_functionIds(funType: string): TStringArray
vb
function get_functionIds() As List
cs
List<string> get_functionIds(string funType)
java
ArrayList<String> get_functionIds(String funType)
uwp
async Task<List<string>> get_functionIds(string funType)
py
def get_functionIds(funType)
php
function get_functionIds($funType)
es
function get_functionIds(funType)
cmd
YModule target get_functionIds funType

Parameters :

funTypeThe type of function (Relay, LightSensor, Voltage,...)

Returns :

an array of strings.

module→get_hardwareId()
module→hardwareId()
module.get_hardwareId()module→get_hardwareId()[module hardwareId]module.get_hardwareId()module.get_hardwareId()module.get_hardwareId()module.get_hardwareId()module→get_hardwareId()module.get_hardwareId()

Returns the unique hardware identifier of the module.

js
function get_hardwareId()
cpp
string get_hardwareId()
m
-(NSString*) hardwareId
vb
function get_hardwareId() As String
cs
string get_hardwareId()
java
String get_hardwareId()
py
def get_hardwareId()
php
function get_hardwareId()
es
function get_hardwareId()

The unique hardware identifier is made of the device serial number followed by string ".module".

Returns :

a string that uniquely identifies the module

module→get_icon2d()
module→icon2d()
module.get_icon2d()module→get_icon2d()[module icon2d]module.get_icon2d()module.get_icon2d()module.get_icon2d()module.get_icon2d()module.get_icon2d()module.get_icon2d()module→get_icon2d()module.get_icon2d()YModule get_icon2d

Returns the icon of the module.

js
function get_icon2d()
cpp
string get_icon2d()
m
-(NSMutableData*) icon2d
pas
function get_icon2d(): TByteArray
vb
function get_icon2d() As Byte
cs
byte[] get_icon2d()
java
byte[] get_icon2d()
uwp
async Task<byte[]> get_icon2d()
py
def get_icon2d()
php
function get_icon2d()
es
function get_icon2d()
cmd
YModule target get_icon2d

The icon is a PNG image and does not exceeds 1536 bytes.

Returns :

a binary buffer with module icon, in png format. On failure, throws an exception or returns YAPI_INVALID_STRING.

module→get_lastLogs()
module→lastLogs()
module.get_lastLogs()module→get_lastLogs()[module lastLogs]module.get_lastLogs()module.get_lastLogs()module.get_lastLogs()module.get_lastLogs()module.get_lastLogs()module.get_lastLogs()module→get_lastLogs()module.get_lastLogs()YModule get_lastLogs

Returns a string with last logs of the module.

js
function get_lastLogs()
cpp
string get_lastLogs()
m
-(NSString*) lastLogs
pas
function get_lastLogs(): string
vb
function get_lastLogs() As String
cs
string get_lastLogs()
java
String get_lastLogs()
uwp
async Task<string> get_lastLogs()
py
def get_lastLogs()
php
function get_lastLogs()
es
function get_lastLogs()
cmd
YModule target get_lastLogs

This method return only logs that are still in the module.

Returns :

a string with last logs of the module. On failure, throws an exception or returns YAPI_INVALID_STRING.

module→get_logicalName()
module→logicalName()
module.get_logicalName()module→get_logicalName()[module logicalName]module.get_logicalName()module.get_logicalName()module.get_logicalName()module.get_logicalName()module.get_logicalName()module.get_logicalName()module→get_logicalName()module.get_logicalName()YModule get_logicalName

Returns the logical name of the module.

js
function get_logicalName()
cpp
string get_logicalName()
m
-(NSString*) logicalName
pas
function get_logicalName(): string
vb
function get_logicalName() As String
cs
string get_logicalName()
java
String get_logicalName()
uwp
async Task<string> get_logicalName()
py
def get_logicalName()
php
function get_logicalName()
es
function get_logicalName()
cmd
YModule target get_logicalName

Returns :

a string corresponding to the logical name of the module

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_LOGICALNAME_INVALID.

module→get_luminosity()
module→luminosity()
module.get_luminosity()module→get_luminosity()[module luminosity]module.get_luminosity()module.get_luminosity()module.get_luminosity()module.get_luminosity()module.get_luminosity()module.get_luminosity()module→get_luminosity()module.get_luminosity()YModule get_luminosity

Returns the luminosity of the module informative leds (from 0 to 100).

js
function get_luminosity()
cpp
int get_luminosity()
m
-(int) luminosity
pas
function get_luminosity(): LongInt
vb
function get_luminosity() As Integer
cs
int get_luminosity()
java
int get_luminosity()
uwp
async Task<int> get_luminosity()
py
def get_luminosity()
php
function get_luminosity()
es
function get_luminosity()
cmd
YModule target get_luminosity

Returns :

an integer corresponding to the luminosity of the module informative leds (from 0 to 100)

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_LUMINOSITY_INVALID.

module→get_parentHub()
module→parentHub()
module.get_parentHub()module→get_parentHub()[module parentHub]module.get_parentHub()module.get_parentHub()module.get_parentHub()module.get_parentHub()module.get_parentHub()module→get_parentHub()YModule get_parentHub

Returns the serial number of the YoctoHub on which this module is connected.

js
function get_parentHub()
cpp
string get_parentHub()
m
-(NSString*) parentHub
pas
function get_parentHub(): string
vb
function get_parentHub() As String
cs
string get_parentHub()
java
String get_parentHub()
py
def get_parentHub()
php
function get_parentHub()
cmd
YModule target get_parentHub

If the module is connected by USB, or if the module is the root YoctoHub, an empty string is returned.

Returns :

a string with the serial number of the YoctoHub or an empty string

module→get_persistentSettings()
module→persistentSettings()
module.get_persistentSettings()module→get_persistentSettings()[module persistentSettings]module.get_persistentSettings()module.get_persistentSettings()module.get_persistentSettings()module.get_persistentSettings()module.get_persistentSettings()module.get_persistentSettings()module→get_persistentSettings()module.get_persistentSettings()YModule get_persistentSettings

Returns the current state of persistent module settings.

js
function get_persistentSettings()
cpp
Y_PERSISTENTSETTINGS_enum get_persistentSettings()
m
-(Y_PERSISTENTSETTINGS_enum) persistentSettings
pas
function get_persistentSettings(): Integer
vb
function get_persistentSettings() As Integer
cs
int get_persistentSettings()
java
int get_persistentSettings()
uwp
async Task<int> get_persistentSettings()
py
def get_persistentSettings()
php
function get_persistentSettings()
es
function get_persistentSettings()
cmd
YModule target get_persistentSettings

Returns :

a value among Y_PERSISTENTSETTINGS_LOADED, Y_PERSISTENTSETTINGS_SAVED and Y_PERSISTENTSETTINGS_MODIFIED corresponding to the current state of persistent module settings

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_PERSISTENTSETTINGS_INVALID.

module→get_productId()
module→productId()
module.get_productId()module→get_productId()[module productId]module.get_productId()module.get_productId()module.get_productId()module.get_productId()module.get_productId()module.get_productId()module→get_productId()module.get_productId()YModule get_productId

Returns the USB device identifier of the module.

js
function get_productId()
cpp
int get_productId()
m
-(int) productId
pas
function get_productId(): LongInt
vb
function get_productId() As Integer
cs
int get_productId()
java
int get_productId()
uwp
async Task<int> get_productId()
py
def get_productId()
php
function get_productId()
es
function get_productId()
cmd
YModule target get_productId

Returns :

an integer corresponding to the USB device identifier of the module

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_PRODUCTID_INVALID.

module→get_productName()
module→productName()
module.get_productName()module→get_productName()[module productName]module.get_productName()module.get_productName()module.get_productName()module.get_productName()module.get_productName()module.get_productName()module→get_productName()module.get_productName()YModule get_productName

Returns the commercial name of the module, as set by the factory.

js
function get_productName()
cpp
string get_productName()
m
-(NSString*) productName
pas
function get_productName(): string
vb
function get_productName() As String
cs
string get_productName()
java
String get_productName()
uwp
async Task<string> get_productName()
py
def get_productName()
php
function get_productName()
es
function get_productName()
cmd
YModule target get_productName

Returns :

a string corresponding to the commercial name of the module, as set by the factory

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_PRODUCTNAME_INVALID.

module→get_productRelease()
module→productRelease()
module.get_productRelease()module→get_productRelease()[module productRelease]module.get_productRelease()module.get_productRelease()module.get_productRelease()module.get_productRelease()module.get_productRelease()module.get_productRelease()module→get_productRelease()module.get_productRelease()YModule get_productRelease

Returns the hardware release version of the module.

js
function get_productRelease()
cpp
int get_productRelease()
m
-(int) productRelease
pas
function get_productRelease(): LongInt
vb
function get_productRelease() As Integer
cs
int get_productRelease()
java
int get_productRelease()
uwp
async Task<int> get_productRelease()
py
def get_productRelease()
php
function get_productRelease()
es
function get_productRelease()
cmd
YModule target get_productRelease

Returns :

an integer corresponding to the hardware release version of the module

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_PRODUCTRELEASE_INVALID.

module→get_rebootCountdown()
module→rebootCountdown()
module.get_rebootCountdown()module→get_rebootCountdown()[module rebootCountdown]module.get_rebootCountdown()module.get_rebootCountdown()module.get_rebootCountdown()module.get_rebootCountdown()module.get_rebootCountdown()module.get_rebootCountdown()module→get_rebootCountdown()module.get_rebootCountdown()YModule get_rebootCountdown

Returns the remaining number of seconds before the module restarts, or zero when no reboot has been scheduled.

js
function get_rebootCountdown()
cpp
int get_rebootCountdown()
m
-(int) rebootCountdown
pas
function get_rebootCountdown(): LongInt
vb
function get_rebootCountdown() As Integer
cs
int get_rebootCountdown()
java
int get_rebootCountdown()
uwp
async Task<int> get_rebootCountdown()
py
def get_rebootCountdown()
php
function get_rebootCountdown()
es
function get_rebootCountdown()
cmd
YModule target get_rebootCountdown

Returns :

an integer corresponding to the remaining number of seconds before the module restarts, or zero when no reboot has been scheduled

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_REBOOTCOUNTDOWN_INVALID.

module→get_serialNumber()
module→serialNumber()
module.get_serialNumber()module→get_serialNumber()[module serialNumber]module.get_serialNumber()module.get_serialNumber()module.get_serialNumber()module.get_serialNumber()module.get_serialNumber()module.get_serialNumber()module→get_serialNumber()module.get_serialNumber()YModule get_serialNumber

Returns the serial number of the module, as set by the factory.

js
function get_serialNumber()
cpp
string get_serialNumber()
m
-(NSString*) serialNumber
pas
function get_serialNumber(): string
vb
function get_serialNumber() As String
cs
string get_serialNumber()
java
String get_serialNumber()
uwp
async Task<string> get_serialNumber()
py
def get_serialNumber()
php
function get_serialNumber()
es
function get_serialNumber()
cmd
YModule target get_serialNumber

Returns :

a string corresponding to the serial number of the module, as set by the factory

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_SERIALNUMBER_INVALID.

module→get_subDevices()
module→subDevices()
module.get_subDevices()module→get_subDevices()[module subDevices]module.get_subDevices()module.get_subDevices()module.get_subDevices()module.get_subDevices()module.get_subDevices()module→get_subDevices()YModule get_subDevices

Returns a list of all the modules that are plugged into the current module.

js
function get_subDevices()
cpp
vector<string> get_subDevices()
m
-(NSMutableArray*) subDevices
pas
function get_subDevices(): TStringArray
vb
function get_subDevices() As List
cs
List<string> get_subDevices()
java
ArrayList<String> get_subDevices()
py
def get_subDevices()
php
function get_subDevices()
cmd
YModule target get_subDevices

This method only makes sense when called for a YoctoHub/VirtualHub. Otherwise, an empty array will be returned.

Returns :

an array of strings containing the sub modules.

module→get_upTime()
module→upTime()
module.get_upTime()module→get_upTime()[module upTime]module.get_upTime()module.get_upTime()module.get_upTime()module.get_upTime()module.get_upTime()module.get_upTime()module→get_upTime()module.get_upTime()YModule get_upTime

Returns the number of milliseconds spent since the module was powered on.

js
function get_upTime()
cpp
s64 get_upTime()
m
-(s64) upTime
pas
function get_upTime(): int64
vb
function get_upTime() As Long
cs
long get_upTime()
java
long get_upTime()
uwp
async Task<long> get_upTime()
py
def get_upTime()
php
function get_upTime()
es
function get_upTime()
cmd
YModule target get_upTime

Returns :

an integer corresponding to the number of milliseconds spent since the module was powered on

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_UPTIME_INVALID.

module→get_url()
module→url()
module.get_url()module→get_url()[module url]module.get_url()module.get_url()module.get_url()module.get_url()module.get_url()module→get_url()YModule get_url

Returns the URL used to access the module.

js
function get_url()
cpp
string get_url()
m
-(NSString*) url
pas
function get_url(): string
vb
function get_url() As String
cs
string get_url()
java
String get_url()
py
def get_url()
php
function get_url()
cmd
YModule target get_url

If the module is connected by USB, the string 'usb' is returned.

Returns :

a string with the URL of the module.

module→get_usbCurrent()
module→usbCurrent()
module.get_usbCurrent()module→get_usbCurrent()[module usbCurrent]module.get_usbCurrent()module.get_usbCurrent()module.get_usbCurrent()module.get_usbCurrent()module.get_usbCurrent()module.get_usbCurrent()module→get_usbCurrent()module.get_usbCurrent()YModule get_usbCurrent

Returns the current consumed by the module on the USB bus, in milli-amps.

js
function get_usbCurrent()
cpp
int get_usbCurrent()
m
-(int) usbCurrent
pas
function get_usbCurrent(): LongInt
vb
function get_usbCurrent() As Integer
cs
int get_usbCurrent()
java
int get_usbCurrent()
uwp
async Task<int> get_usbCurrent()
py
def get_usbCurrent()
php
function get_usbCurrent()
es
function get_usbCurrent()
cmd
YModule target get_usbCurrent

Returns :

an integer corresponding to the current consumed by the module on the USB bus, in milli-amps

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_USBCURRENT_INVALID.

module→get_userData()
module→userData()
module.get_userData()module→get_userData()[module userData]module.get_userData()module.get_userData()module.get_userData()module.get_userData()module.get_userData()module→get_userData()module.get_userData()

Returns the value of the userData attribute, as previously stored using method set_userData.

js
function get_userData()
cpp
void * get_userData()
m
-(id) userData
pas
function get_userData(): Tobject
vb
function get_userData() As Object
cs
object get_userData()
java
Object get_userData()
py
def get_userData()
php
function get_userData()
es
function get_userData()

This attribute is never touched directly by the API, and is at disposal of the caller to store a context.

Returns :

the object stored previously by the caller.

module→get_userVar()
module→userVar()
module.get_userVar()module→get_userVar()[module userVar]module.get_userVar()module.get_userVar()module.get_userVar()module.get_userVar()module.get_userVar()module.get_userVar()module→get_userVar()module.get_userVar()YModule get_userVar

Returns the value previously stored in this attribute.

js
function get_userVar()
cpp
int get_userVar()
m
-(int) userVar
pas
function get_userVar(): LongInt
vb
function get_userVar() As Integer
cs
int get_userVar()
java
int get_userVar()
uwp
async Task<int> get_userVar()
py
def get_userVar()
php
function get_userVar()
es
function get_userVar()
cmd
YModule target get_userVar

On startup and after a device reboot, the value is always reset to zero.

Returns :

an integer corresponding to the value previously stored in this attribute

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_USERVAR_INVALID.

module→hasFunction()module.hasFunction()module→hasFunction()[module hasFunction: ]module.hasFunction()module.hasFunction()module.hasFunction()module.hasFunction()module.hasFunction()module.hasFunction()module→hasFunction()module.hasFunction()YModule hasFunction

Tests if the device includes a specific function.

js
function hasFunction(funcId)
cpp
bool hasFunction(string funcId)
m
-(bool) hasFunction: (NSString*) funcId
pas
function hasFunction(funcId: string): boolean
vb
function hasFunction() As Boolean
cs
bool hasFunction(string funcId)
java
boolean hasFunction(String funcId)
uwp
async Task<bool> hasFunction(string funcId)
py
def hasFunction(funcId)
php
function hasFunction($funcId)
es
function hasFunction(funcId)
cmd
YModule target hasFunction funcId

This method takes a function identifier and returns a boolean.

Parameters :

funcIdthe requested function identifier

Returns :

true if the device has the function identifier

module→isOnline()module.isOnline()module→isOnline()[module isOnline]module.isOnline()module.isOnline()module.isOnline()module.isOnline()module.isOnline()module→isOnline()module.isOnline()

Checks if the module is currently reachable, without raising any error.

js
function isOnline()
cpp
bool isOnline()
m
-(BOOL) isOnline
pas
function isOnline(): boolean
vb
function isOnline() As Boolean
cs
bool isOnline()
java
boolean isOnline()
py
def isOnline()
php
function isOnline()
es
function isOnline()

If there are valid cached values for the module, that have not yet expired, the device is considered reachable. No exception is raised if there is an error while trying to contact the requested module.

Returns :

true if the module can be reached, and false otherwise

module→isOnline_async()module.isOnline_async()

Checks if the module is currently reachable, without raising any error.

js
function isOnline_async(callback, context)

If there are valid cached values for the module, that have not yet expired, the device is considered reachable. No exception is raised if there is an error while trying to contact the requested module.

This asynchronous version exists only in Javascript. It uses a callback instead of a return value in order to avoid blocking Firefox Javascript VM that does not implement context switching during blocking I/O calls.

Parameters :

callbackcallback function that is invoked when the result is known. The callback function receives three arguments: the caller-specific context object, the receiving module object and the boolean result
contextcaller-specific object that is passed as-is to the callback function

Returns :

nothing : the result is provided to the callback.

module→load()module.load()module→load()[module load: ]module.load()module.load()module.load()module.load()module.load()module→load()module.load()

Preloads the module cache with a specified validity duration.

js
function load(msValidity)
cpp
YRETCODE load(int msValidity)
m
-(YRETCODE) load: (int) msValidity
pas
function load(msValidity: integer): YRETCODE
vb
function load(ByVal msValidity As Integer) As YRETCODE
cs
YRETCODE load(ulong msValidity)
java
int load(long msValidity)
py
def load(msValidity)
php
function load($msValidity)
es
function load(msValidity)

By default, whenever accessing a device, all module attributes are kept in cache for the standard duration (5 ms). This method can be used to temporarily mark the cache as valid for a longer period, in order to reduce network traffic for instance.

Parameters :

msValidityan integer corresponding to the validity attributed to the loaded module parameters, in milliseconds

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→load_async()module.load_async()

Preloads the module cache with a specified validity duration (asynchronous version).

js
function load_async(msValidity, callback, context)

By default, whenever accessing a device, all module attributes are kept in cache for the standard duration (5 ms). This method can be used to temporarily mark the cache as valid for a longer period, in order to reduce network traffic for instance.

This asynchronous version exists only in Javascript. It uses a callback instead of a return value in order to avoid blocking Firefox javascript VM that does not implement context switching during blocking I/O calls. See the documentation section on asynchronous Javascript calls for more details.

Parameters :

msValidityan integer corresponding to the validity of the loaded module parameters, in milliseconds
callbackcallback function that is invoked when the result is known. The callback function receives three arguments: the caller-specific context object, the receiving module object and the error code (or YAPI_SUCCESS)
contextcaller-specific object that is passed as-is to the callback function

Returns :

nothing : the result is provided to the callback.

module→log()module.log()module→log()[module log: ]module.log()module.log()module.log()module.log()module.log()module.log()module→log()module.log()YModule log

Adds a text message to the device logs.

js
function log(text)
cpp
int log(string text)
m
-(int) log: (NSString*) text
pas
function log(text: string): LongInt
vb
function log() As Integer
cs
int log(string text)
java
int log(String text)
uwp
async Task<int> log(string text)
py
def log(text)
php
function log($text)
es
function log(text)
cmd
YModule target log text

This function is useful in particular to trace the execution of HTTP callbacks. If a newline is desired after the message, it must be included in the string.

Parameters :

textthe string to append to the logs.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS if the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→nextModule()module.nextModule()module→nextModule()[module nextModule]module.nextModule()module.nextModule()module.nextModule()module.nextModule()module.nextModule()module.nextModule()module→nextModule()module.nextModule()

Continues the module enumeration started using yFirstModule().

js
function nextModule()
cpp
YModule * nextModule()
m
-(YModule*) nextModule
pas
function nextModule(): TYModule
vb
function nextModule() As YModule
cs
YModule nextModule()
java
YModule nextModule()
uwp
YModule nextModule()
py
def nextModule()
php
function nextModule()
es
function nextModule()

Returns :

a pointer to a YModule object, corresponding to the next module found, or a null pointer if there are no more modules to enumerate.

module→reboot()module.reboot()module→reboot()[module reboot: ]module.reboot()module.reboot()module.reboot()module.reboot()module.reboot()module.reboot()module→reboot()module.reboot()YModule reboot

Schedules a simple module reboot after the given number of seconds.

js
function reboot(secBeforeReboot)
cpp
int reboot(int secBeforeReboot)
m
-(int) reboot: (int) secBeforeReboot
pas
function reboot(secBeforeReboot: LongInt): LongInt
vb
function reboot() As Integer
cs
int reboot(int secBeforeReboot)
java
int reboot(int secBeforeReboot)
uwp
async Task<int> reboot(int secBeforeReboot)
py
def reboot(secBeforeReboot)
php
function reboot($secBeforeReboot)
es
function reboot(secBeforeReboot)
cmd
YModule target reboot secBeforeReboot

Parameters :

secBeforeRebootnumber of seconds before rebooting

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→registerLogCallback()module→registerLogCallback()[module registerLogCallback: ]module.registerLogCallback()module.registerLogCallback()module.registerLogCallback()module.registerLogCallback()

Registers a device log callback function.

cpp
void registerLogCallback(YModuleLogCallback callback)
m
-(void) registerLogCallback: (YModuleLogCallback) callback
vb
function registerLogCallback(ByVal callback As YModuleLogCallback) As Integer
cs
int registerLogCallback(LogCallback callback)
java
void registerLogCallback(LogCallback callback)
py
def registerLogCallback(callback)

This callback will be called each time that a module sends a new log message. Mostly useful to debug a Yoctopuce module.

Parameters :

callbackthe callback function to call, or a null pointer. The callback function should take two arguments: the module object that emitted the log message, and the character string containing the log.

module→revertFromFlash()module.revertFromFlash()module→revertFromFlash()[module revertFromFlash]module.revertFromFlash()module.revertFromFlash()module.revertFromFlash()module.revertFromFlash()module.revertFromFlash()module.revertFromFlash()module→revertFromFlash()module.revertFromFlash()YModule revertFromFlash

Reloads the settings stored in the nonvolatile memory, as when the module is powered on.

js
function revertFromFlash()
cpp
int revertFromFlash()
m
-(int) revertFromFlash
pas
function revertFromFlash(): LongInt
vb
function revertFromFlash() As Integer
cs
int revertFromFlash()
java
int revertFromFlash()
uwp
async Task<int> revertFromFlash()
py
def revertFromFlash()
php
function revertFromFlash()
es
function revertFromFlash()
cmd
YModule target revertFromFlash

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→saveToFlash()module.saveToFlash()module→saveToFlash()[module saveToFlash]module.saveToFlash()module.saveToFlash()module.saveToFlash()module.saveToFlash()module.saveToFlash()module.saveToFlash()module→saveToFlash()module.saveToFlash()YModule saveToFlash

Saves current settings in the nonvolatile memory of the module.

js
function saveToFlash()
cpp
int saveToFlash()
m
-(int) saveToFlash
pas
function saveToFlash(): LongInt
vb
function saveToFlash() As Integer
cs
int saveToFlash()
java
int saveToFlash()
uwp
async Task<int> saveToFlash()
py
def saveToFlash()
php
function saveToFlash()
es
function saveToFlash()
cmd
YModule target saveToFlash

Warning: the number of allowed save operations during a module life is limited (about 100000 cycles). Do not call this function within a loop.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→set_allSettings()
module→setAllSettings()
module.set_allSettings()module→set_allSettings()[module setAllSettings: ]module.set_allSettings()module.set_allSettings()module.set_allSettings()module.set_allSettings()module.set_allSettings()module.set_allSettings()module→set_allSettings()module.set_allSettings()YModule set_allSettings

Restores all the settings of the device.

js
function set_allSettings(settings)
cpp
int set_allSettings(string settings)
m
-(int) setAllSettings: (NSData*) settings
pas
function set_allSettings(settings: TByteArray): LongInt
vb
procedure set_allSettings()
cs
int set_allSettings()
java
int set_allSettings(byte[] settings)
uwp
async Task<int> set_allSettings()
py
def set_allSettings(settings)
php
function set_allSettings($settings)
es
function set_allSettings(settings)
cmd
YModule target set_allSettings settings

Useful to restore all the logical names and calibrations parameters of a module from a backup.Remember to call the saveToFlash() method of the module if the modifications must be kept.

Parameters :

settingsa binary buffer with all the settings.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→set_allSettingsAndFiles()
module→setAllSettingsAndFiles()
module.set_allSettingsAndFiles()module→set_allSettingsAndFiles()[module setAllSettingsAndFiles: ]module.set_allSettingsAndFiles()module.set_allSettingsAndFiles()module.set_allSettingsAndFiles()module.set_allSettingsAndFiles()module.set_allSettingsAndFiles()module.set_allSettingsAndFiles()module→set_allSettingsAndFiles()module.set_allSettingsAndFiles()YModule set_allSettingsAndFiles

Restores all the settings and uploaded files to the module.

js
function set_allSettingsAndFiles(settings)
cpp
int set_allSettingsAndFiles(string settings)
m
-(int) setAllSettingsAndFiles: (NSData*) settings
pas
function set_allSettingsAndFiles(settings: TByteArray): LongInt
vb
procedure set_allSettingsAndFiles()
cs
int set_allSettingsAndFiles()
java
int set_allSettingsAndFiles(byte[] settings)
uwp
async Task<int> set_allSettingsAndFiles()
py
def set_allSettingsAndFiles(settings)
php
function set_allSettingsAndFiles($settings)
es
function set_allSettingsAndFiles(settings)
cmd
YModule target set_allSettingsAndFiles settings

This method is useful to restore all the logical names and calibrations parameters, uploaded files etc. of a device from a backup. Remember to call the saveToFlash() method of the module if the modifications must be kept.

Parameters :

settingsa binary buffer with all the settings.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→set_beacon()
module→setBeacon()
module.set_beacon()module→set_beacon()[module setBeacon: ]module.set_beacon()module.set_beacon()module.set_beacon()module.set_beacon()module.set_beacon()module.set_beacon()module→set_beacon()module.set_beacon()YModule set_beacon

Turns on or off the module localization beacon.

js
function set_beacon(newval)
cpp
int set_beacon(Y_BEACON_enum newval)
m
-(int) setBeacon: (Y_BEACON_enum) newval
pas
function set_beacon(newval: Integer): integer
vb
function set_beacon(ByVal newval As Integer) As Integer
cs
int set_beacon(int newval)
java
int set_beacon(int newval)
uwp
async Task<int> set_beacon(int newval)
py
def set_beacon(newval)
php
function set_beacon($newval)
es
function set_beacon(newval)
cmd
YModule target set_beacon newval

Parameters :

newvaleither Y_BEACON_OFF or Y_BEACON_ON

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS if the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→set_logicalName()
module→setLogicalName()
module.set_logicalName()module→set_logicalName()[module setLogicalName: ]module.set_logicalName()module.set_logicalName()module.set_logicalName()module.set_logicalName()module.set_logicalName()module.set_logicalName()module→set_logicalName()module.set_logicalName()YModule set_logicalName

Changes the logical name of the module.

js
function set_logicalName(newval)
cpp
int set_logicalName(const string& newval)
m
-(int) setLogicalName: (NSString*) newval
pas
function set_logicalName(newval: string): integer
vb
function set_logicalName(ByVal newval As String) As Integer
cs
int set_logicalName(string newval)
java
int set_logicalName(String newval)
uwp
async Task<int> set_logicalName(string newval)
py
def set_logicalName(newval)
php
function set_logicalName($newval)
es
function set_logicalName(newval)
cmd
YModule target set_logicalName newval

You can use yCheckLogicalName() prior to this call to make sure that your parameter is valid. Remember to call the saveToFlash() method of the module if the modification must be kept.

Parameters :

newvala string corresponding to the logical name of the module

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS if the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→set_luminosity()
module→setLuminosity()
module.set_luminosity()module→set_luminosity()[module setLuminosity: ]module.set_luminosity()module.set_luminosity()module.set_luminosity()module.set_luminosity()module.set_luminosity()module.set_luminosity()module→set_luminosity()module.set_luminosity()YModule set_luminosity

Changes the luminosity of the module informative leds.

js
function set_luminosity(newval)
cpp
int set_luminosity(int newval)
m
-(int) setLuminosity: (int) newval
pas
function set_luminosity(newval: LongInt): integer
vb
function set_luminosity(ByVal newval As Integer) As Integer
cs
int set_luminosity(int newval)
java
int set_luminosity(int newval)
uwp
async Task<int> set_luminosity(int newval)
py
def set_luminosity(newval)
php
function set_luminosity($newval)
es
function set_luminosity(newval)
cmd
YModule target set_luminosity newval

The parameter is a value between 0 and 100. Remember to call the saveToFlash() method of the module if the modification must be kept.

Parameters :

newvalan integer corresponding to the luminosity of the module informative leds

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS if the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→set_userData()
module→setUserData()
module.set_userData()module→set_userData()[module setUserData: ]module.set_userData()module.set_userData()module.set_userData()module.set_userData()module.set_userData()module→set_userData()module.set_userData()

Stores a user context provided as argument in the userData attribute of the function.

js
function set_userData(data)
cpp
void set_userData(void* data)
m
-(void) setUserData: (id) data
pas
procedure set_userData(data: Tobject)
vb
procedure set_userData(ByVal data As Object)
cs
void set_userData(object data)
java
void set_userData(Object data)
py
def set_userData(data)
php
function set_userData($data)
es
function set_userData(data)

This attribute is never touched by the API, and is at disposal of the caller to store a context.

Parameters :

dataany kind of object to be stored

module→set_userVar()
module→setUserVar()
module.set_userVar()module→set_userVar()[module setUserVar: ]module.set_userVar()module.set_userVar()module.set_userVar()module.set_userVar()module.set_userVar()module.set_userVar()module→set_userVar()module.set_userVar()YModule set_userVar

Stores a 32 bit value in the device RAM.

js
function set_userVar(newval)
cpp
int set_userVar(int newval)
m
-(int) setUserVar: (int) newval
pas
function set_userVar(newval: LongInt): integer
vb
function set_userVar(ByVal newval As Integer) As Integer
cs
int set_userVar(int newval)
java
int set_userVar(int newval)
uwp
async Task<int> set_userVar(int newval)
py
def set_userVar(newval)
php
function set_userVar($newval)
es
function set_userVar(newval)
cmd
YModule target set_userVar newval

This attribute is at programmer disposal, should he need to store a state variable. On startup and after a device reboot, the value is always reset to zero.

Parameters :

newvalan integer

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS if the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→triggerFirmwareUpdate()module.triggerFirmwareUpdate()module→triggerFirmwareUpdate()[module triggerFirmwareUpdate: ]module.triggerFirmwareUpdate()module.triggerFirmwareUpdate()module.triggerFirmwareUpdate()module.triggerFirmwareUpdate()module.triggerFirmwareUpdate()module.triggerFirmwareUpdate()module→triggerFirmwareUpdate()module.triggerFirmwareUpdate()YModule triggerFirmwareUpdate

Schedules a module reboot into special firmware update mode.

js
function triggerFirmwareUpdate(secBeforeReboot)
cpp
int triggerFirmwareUpdate(int secBeforeReboot)
m
-(int) triggerFirmwareUpdate: (int) secBeforeReboot
pas
function triggerFirmwareUpdate(secBeforeReboot: LongInt): LongInt
vb
function triggerFirmwareUpdate() As Integer
cs
int triggerFirmwareUpdate(int secBeforeReboot)
java
int triggerFirmwareUpdate(int secBeforeReboot)
uwp
async Task<int> triggerFirmwareUpdate(int secBeforeReboot)
py
def triggerFirmwareUpdate(secBeforeReboot)
php
function triggerFirmwareUpdate($secBeforeReboot)
es
function triggerFirmwareUpdate(secBeforeReboot)
cmd
YModule target triggerFirmwareUpdate secBeforeReboot

Parameters :

secBeforeRebootnumber of seconds before rebooting

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS when the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

module→updateFirmware()module.updateFirmware()module→updateFirmware()[module updateFirmware: ]module.updateFirmware()module.updateFirmware()module.updateFirmware()module.updateFirmware()module.updateFirmware()module.updateFirmware()module→updateFirmware()module.updateFirmware()YModule updateFirmware

Prepares a firmware update of the module.

js
function updateFirmware(path)
cpp
YFirmwareUpdate updateFirmware(string path)
m
-(YFirmwareUpdate*) updateFirmware: (NSString*) path
pas
function updateFirmware(path: string): TYFirmwareUpdate
vb
function updateFirmware() As YFirmwareUpdate
cs
YFirmwareUpdate updateFirmware(string path)
java
YFirmwareUpdate updateFirmware(String path)
uwp
async Task<YFirmwareUpdate> updateFirmware(string path)
py
def updateFirmware(path)
php
function updateFirmware($path)
es
function updateFirmware(path)
cmd
YModule target updateFirmware path

This method returns a YFirmwareUpdate object which handles the firmware update process.

Parameters :

paththe path of the .byn file to use.

Returns :

a YFirmwareUpdate object or NULL on error.

module→updateFirmwareEx()module.updateFirmwareEx()module→updateFirmwareEx()[module updateFirmwareEx: ]module.updateFirmwareEx()module.updateFirmwareEx()module.updateFirmwareEx()module.updateFirmwareEx()module.updateFirmwareEx()module.updateFirmwareEx()module→updateFirmwareEx()module.updateFirmwareEx()YModule updateFirmwareEx

Prepares a firmware update of the module.

js
function updateFirmwareEx(path, force)
cpp
YFirmwareUpdate updateFirmwareEx(string path, bool force)
m
-(YFirmwareUpdate*) updateFirmwareEx: (NSString*) path
  : (bool) force
pas
function updateFirmwareEx(path: string, force: boolean): TYFirmwareUpdate
vb
function updateFirmwareEx() As YFirmwareUpdate
cs
YFirmwareUpdate updateFirmwareEx(string path, bool force)
java
YFirmwareUpdate updateFirmwareEx(String path, boolean force)
uwp
async Task<YFirmwareUpdate> updateFirmwareEx(string path,
  bool force)
py
def updateFirmwareEx(path, force)
php
function updateFirmwareEx($path, $force)
es
function updateFirmwareEx(path, force)
cmd
YModule target updateFirmwareEx path force

This method returns a YFirmwareUpdate object which handles the firmware update process.

Parameters :

paththe path of the .byn file to use.
forcetrue to force the firmware update even if some prerequisites appear not to be met

Returns :

a YFirmwareUpdate object or NULL on error.

module→wait_async()module.wait_async()module.wait_async()

Waits for all pending asynchronous commands on the module to complete, and invoke the user-provided callback function.

js
function wait_async(callback, context)
es
function wait_async(callback, context)

The callback function can therefore freely issue synchronous or asynchronous commands, without risking to block the Javascript VM.

Parameters :

callbackcallback function that is invoked when all pending commands on the module are completed. The callback function receives two arguments: the caller-specific context object and the receiving function object.
contextcaller-specific object that is passed as-is to the callback function

Returns :

nothing.

21.3. LightSensor function interface

The Yoctopuce class YLightSensor allows you to read and configure Yoctopuce light sensors. It inherits from YSensor class the core functions to read measurements, to register callback functions, to access the autonomous datalogger. This class adds the ability to easily perform a one-point linear calibration to compensate the effect of a glass or filter placed in front of the sensor. For some light sensors with several working modes, this class can select the desired working mode.

In order to use the functions described here, you should include:

js
<script type='text/javascript' src='yocto_lightsensor.js'></script>
cpp
#include "yocto_lightsensor.h"
m
#import "yocto_lightsensor.h"
pas
uses yocto_lightsensor;
vb
yocto_lightsensor.vb
cs
yocto_lightsensor.cs
java
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YLightSensor;
uwp
import com.yoctopuce.YoctoAPI.YLightSensor;
py
from yocto_lightsensor import *
php
require_once('yocto_lightsensor.php');
es
in HTML: <script src="../../lib/yocto_lightsensor.js"></script>
in node.js: require('yoctolib-es2017/yocto_lightsensor.js');
Global functions
yFindLightSensor(func)

Retrieves a light sensor for a given identifier.

yFindLightSensorInContext(yctx, func)

Retrieves a light sensor for a given identifier in a YAPI context.

yFirstLightSensor()

Starts the enumeration of light sensors currently accessible.

yFirstLightSensorInContext(yctx)

Starts the enumeration of light sensors currently accessible.

YLightSensor methods
lightsensor→calibrate(calibratedVal)

Changes the sensor-specific calibration parameter so that the current value matches a desired target (linear scaling).

lightsensor→calibrateFromPoints(rawValues, refValues)

Configures error correction data points, in particular to compensate for a possible perturbation of the measure caused by an enclosure.

lightsensor→clearCache()

Invalidates the cache.

lightsensor→describe()

Returns a short text that describes unambiguously the instance of the light sensor in the form TYPE(NAME)=SERIAL.FUNCTIONID.

lightsensor→get_advertisedValue()

Returns the current value of the light sensor (no more than 6 characters).

lightsensor→get_currentRawValue()

Returns the uncalibrated, unrounded raw value returned by the sensor, in the specified unit, as a floating point number.

lightsensor→get_currentValue()

Returns the current value of the ambient light, in the specified unit, as a floating point number.

lightsensor→get_dataLogger()

Returns the YDatalogger object of the device hosting the sensor.

lightsensor→get_errorMessage()

Returns the error message of the latest error with the light sensor.

lightsensor→get_errorType()

Returns the numerical error code of the latest error with the light sensor.

lightsensor→get_friendlyName()

Returns a global identifier of the light sensor in the format MODULE_NAME.FUNCTION_NAME.

lightsensor→get_functionDescriptor()

Returns a unique identifier of type YFUN_DESCR corresponding to the function.

lightsensor→get_functionId()

Returns the hardware identifier of the light sensor, without reference to the module.

lightsensor→get_hardwareId()

Returns the unique hardware identifier of the light sensor in the form SERIAL.FUNCTIONID.

lightsensor→get_highestValue()

Returns the maximal value observed for the ambient light since the device was started.

lightsensor→get_logFrequency()

Returns the datalogger recording frequency for this function, or "OFF" when measures are not stored in the data logger flash memory.

lightsensor→get_logicalName()

Returns the logical name of the light sensor.

lightsensor→get_lowestValue()

Returns the minimal value observed for the ambient light since the device was started.

lightsensor→get_measureType()

Returns the type of light measure.

lightsensor→get_module()

Gets the YModule object for the device on which the function is located.

lightsensor→get_module_async(callback, context)

Gets the YModule object for the device on which the function is located (asynchronous version).

lightsensor→get_recordedData(startTime, endTime)

Retrieves a DataSet object holding historical data for this sensor, for a specified time interval.

lightsensor→get_reportFrequency()

Returns the timed value notification frequency, or "OFF" if timed value notifications are disabled for this function.

lightsensor→get_resolution()

Returns the resolution of the measured values.

lightsensor→get_sensorState()

Returns the sensor health state code, which is zero when there is an up-to-date measure available or a positive code if the sensor is not able to provide a measure right now.

lightsensor→get_unit()

Returns the measuring unit for the ambient light.

lightsensor→get_userData()

Returns the value of the userData attribute, as previously stored using method set_userData.

lightsensor→isOnline()

Checks if the light sensor is currently reachable, without raising any error.

lightsensor→isOnline_async(callback, context)

Checks if the light sensor is currently reachable, without raising any error (asynchronous version).

lightsensor→isSensorReady()

Checks if the sensor is currently able to provide an up-to-date measure.

lightsensor→load(msValidity)

Preloads the light sensor cache with a specified validity duration.

lightsensor→loadAttribute(attrName)

Returns the current value of a single function attribute, as a text string, as quickly as possible but without using the cached value.

lightsensor→loadCalibrationPoints(rawValues, refValues)

Retrieves error correction data points previously entered using the method calibrateFromPoints.

lightsensor→load_async(msValidity, callback, context)

Preloads the light sensor cache with a specified validity duration (asynchronous version).

lightsensor→muteValueCallbacks()

Disables the propagation of every new advertised value to the parent hub.

lightsensor→nextLightSensor()

Continues the enumeration of light sensors started using yFirstLightSensor().

lightsensor→registerTimedReportCallback(callback)

Registers the callback function that is invoked on every periodic timed notification.

lightsensor→registerValueCallback(callback)

Registers the callback function that is invoked on every change of advertised value.

lightsensor→set_highestValue(newval)

Changes the recorded maximal value observed.

lightsensor→set_logFrequency(newval)

Changes the datalogger recording frequency for this function.

lightsensor→set_logicalName(newval)

Changes the logical name of the light sensor.

lightsensor→set_lowestValue(newval)

Changes the recorded minimal value observed.

lightsensor→set_measureType(newval)

Modifies the light sensor type used in the device.

lightsensor→set_reportFrequency(newval)

Changes the timed value notification frequency for this function.

lightsensor→set_resolution(newval)

Changes the resolution of the measured physical values.

lightsensor→set_userData(data)

Stores a user context provided as argument in the userData attribute of the function.

lightsensor→startDataLogger()

Starts the data logger on the device.

lightsensor→stopDataLogger()

Stops the datalogger on the device.

lightsensor→unmuteValueCallbacks()

Re-enables the propagation of every new advertised value to the parent hub.

lightsensor→wait_async(callback, context)

Waits for all pending asynchronous commands on the module to complete, and invoke the user-provided callback function.

YLightSensor.FindLightSensor()
yFindLightSensor()
yFindLightSensor()yFindLightSensor()[YLightSensor FindLightSensor: ]yFindLightSensor()yFindLightSensor()YLightSensor.FindLightSensor()YLightSensor.FindLightSensor()YLightSensor.FindLightSensor()YLightSensor.FindLightSensor()yFindLightSensor()YLightSensor.FindLightSensor()

Retrieves a light sensor for a given identifier.

js
function yFindLightSensor(func)
cpp
YLightSensor* yFindLightSensor(string func)
m
+(YLightSensor*) FindLightSensor: (NSString*) func
pas
function yFindLightSensor(func: string): TYLightSensor
vb
function yFindLightSensor(ByVal func As String) As YLightSensor
cs
YLightSensor FindLightSensor(string func)
java
YLightSensor FindLightSensor(String func)
uwp
YLightSensor FindLightSensor(string func)
py
def FindLightSensor(func)
php
function yFindLightSensor($func)
es
function FindLightSensor(func)

The identifier can be specified using several formats:

This function does not require that the light sensor is online at the time it is invoked. The returned object is nevertheless valid. Use the method YLightSensor.isOnline() to test if the light sensor is indeed online at a given time. In case of ambiguity when looking for a light sensor by logical name, no error is notified: the first instance found is returned. The search is performed first by hardware name, then by logical name. If a call to this object's is_online() method returns FALSE although you are certain that the matching device is plugged, make sure that you did call registerHub() at application initialization time.

Parameters :

funca string that uniquely characterizes the light sensor

Returns :

a YLightSensor object allowing you to drive the light sensor.

YLightSensor.FindLightSensorInContext()
yFindLightSensorInContext()
YLightSensor.FindLightSensorInContext()YLightSensor.FindLightSensorInContext()YLightSensor.FindLightSensorInContext()

Retrieves a light sensor for a given identifier in a YAPI context.

java
YLightSensor FindLightSensorInContext(YAPIContext yctx,
  String func)
uwp
YLightSensor FindLightSensorInContext(YAPIContext yctx,
  string func)
es
function FindLightSensorInContext(yctx, func)

The identifier can be specified using several formats:

This function does not require that the light sensor is online at the time it is invoked. The returned object is nevertheless valid. Use the method YLightSensor.isOnline() to test if the light sensor is indeed online at a given time. In case of ambiguity when looking for a light sensor by logical name, no error is notified: the first instance found is returned. The search is performed first by hardware name, then by logical name.

Parameters :

yctxa YAPI context
funca string that uniquely characterizes the light sensor

Returns :

a YLightSensor object allowing you to drive the light sensor.

YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor()
yFirstLightSensor()
yFirstLightSensor()yFirstLightSensor()[YLightSensor FirstLightSensor]yFirstLightSensor()yFirstLightSensor()YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor()YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor()YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor()YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor()yFirstLightSensor()YLightSensor.FirstLightSensor()

Starts the enumeration of light sensors currently accessible.

js
function yFirstLightSensor()
cpp
YLightSensor* yFirstLightSensor()
m
+(YLightSensor*) FirstLightSensor
pas
function yFirstLightSensor(): TYLightSensor
vb
function yFirstLightSensor() As YLightSensor
cs
YLightSensor FirstLightSensor()
java
YLightSensor FirstLightSensor()
uwp
YLightSensor FirstLightSensor()
py
def FirstLightSensor()
php
function yFirstLightSensor()
es
function FirstLightSensor()

Use the method YLightSensor.nextLightSensor() to iterate on next light sensors.

Returns :

a pointer to a YLightSensor object, corresponding to the first light sensor currently online, or a null pointer if there are none.

YLightSensor.FirstLightSensorInContext()
yFirstLightSensorInContext()
YLightSensor.FirstLightSensorInContext()YLightSensor.FirstLightSensorInContext()YLightSensor.FirstLightSensorInContext()

Starts the enumeration of light sensors currently accessible.

java
YLightSensor FirstLightSensorInContext(YAPIContext yctx)
uwp
YLightSensor FirstLightSensorInContext(YAPIContext yctx)
es
function FirstLightSensorInContext(yctx)

Use the method YLightSensor.nextLightSensor() to iterate on next light sensors.

Parameters :

yctxa YAPI context.

Returns :

a pointer to a YLightSensor object, corresponding to the first light sensor currently online, or a null pointer if there are none.

lightsensor→calibrate()lightsensor.calibrate()lightsensor→calibrate()[lightsensor calibrate: ]lightsensor.calibrate()lightsensor.calibrate()lightsensor.calibrate()lightsensor.calibrate()lightsensor.calibrate()lightsensor.calibrate()lightsensor→calibrate()lightsensor.calibrate()YLightSensor calibrate

Changes the sensor-specific calibration parameter so that the current value matches a desired target (linear scaling).

js
function calibrate(calibratedVal)
cpp
int calibrate(double calibratedVal)
m
-(int) calibrate: (double) calibratedVal
pas
function calibrate(calibratedVal: double): integer
vb
function calibrate(ByVal calibratedVal As Double) As Integer
cs
int calibrate(double calibratedVal)
java
int calibrate(double calibratedVal)
uwp
async Task<int> calibrate(double calibratedVal)
py
def calibrate(calibratedVal)
php
function calibrate($calibratedVal)
es
function calibrate(calibratedVal)
cmd
YLightSensor target calibrate calibratedVal

Parameters :

Remember to call the saveToFlash() method of the module if the modification must be kept.
calibratedValthe desired target value.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS if the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

lightsensor→calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor.calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor→calibrateFromPoints()[lightsensor calibrateFromPoints: ]lightsensor.calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor.calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor.calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor.calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor.calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor.calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor→calibrateFromPoints()lightsensor.calibrateFromPoints()YLightSensor calibrateFromPoints

Configures error correction data points, in particular to compensate for a possible perturbation of the measure caused by an enclosure.

js
function calibrateFromPoints(rawValues, refValues)
cpp
int calibrateFromPoints(vector<double> rawValues,
  vector<double> refValues)
m
-(int) calibrateFromPoints: (NSMutableArray*) rawValues
  : (NSMutableArray*) refValues
pas
function calibrateFromPoints(rawValues: TDoubleArray,
  refValues: TDoubleArray): LongInt
vb
procedure calibrateFromPoints()
cs
int calibrateFromPoints(List<double> rawValues,
  List<double> refValues)
java
int calibrateFromPoints(ArrayList<Double> rawValues,
  ArrayList<Double> refValues)
uwp
async Task<int> calibrateFromPoints(List<double> rawValues,
  List<double> refValues)
py
def calibrateFromPoints(rawValues, refValues)
php
function calibrateFromPoints($rawValues, $refValues)
es
function calibrateFromPoints(rawValues, refValues)
cmd
YLightSensor target calibrateFromPoints rawValues refValues

It is possible to configure up to five correction points. Correction points must be provided in ascending order, and be in the range of the sensor. The device will automatically perform a linear interpolation of the error correction between specified points. Remember to call the saveToFlash() method of the module if the modification must be kept.

For more information on advanced capabilities to refine the calibration of sensors, please contact support@yoctopuce.com.

Parameters :

rawValuesarray of floating point numbers, corresponding to the raw values returned by the sensor for the correction points.
refValuesarray of floating point numbers, corresponding to the corrected values for the correction points.

Returns :

YAPI_SUCCESS if the call succeeds.

On failure, throws an exception or returns a negative error code.

lightsensor→clearCache()lightsensor.clearCache()lightsensor→clearCache()[lightsensor clearCache]lightsensor.clearCache()lightsensor.clearCache()lightsensor.clearCache()lightsensor.clearCache()lightsensor.clearCache()lightsensor→clearCache()lightsensor.clearCache()

Invalidates the cache.

js
function clearCache()
cpp
void clearCache()
m
-(void) clearCache
pas
procedure clearCache()
vb
procedure clearCache()
cs
void clearCache()
java
void clearCache()
py
def clearCache()
php
function clearCache()
es
function clearCache()

Invalidates the cache of the light sensor attributes. Forces the next call to get_xxx() or loadxxx() to use values that come from the device.

lightsensor→describe()lightsensor.describe()lightsensor→describe()[lightsensor describe]lightsensor.describe()lightsensor.describe()lightsensor.describe()lightsensor.describe()lightsensor.describe()lightsensor→describe()lightsensor.describe()

Returns a short text that describes unambiguously the instance of the light sensor in the form TYPE(NAME)=SERIAL.FUNCTIONID.

js
function describe()
cpp
string describe()
m
-(NSString*) describe
pas
function describe(): string
vb
function describe() As String
cs
string describe()
java
String describe()
py
def describe()
php
function describe()
es
function describe()

More precisely, TYPE is the type of the function, NAME it the name used for the first access to the function, SERIAL is the serial number of the module if the module is connected or "unresolved", and FUNCTIONID is the hardware identifier of the function if the module is connected. For example, this method returns Relay(MyCustomName.relay1)=RELAYLO1-123456.relay1 if the module is already connected or Relay(BadCustomeName.relay1)=unresolved if the module has not yet been connected. This method does not trigger any USB or TCP transaction and can therefore be used in a debugger.

Returns :

a string that describes the light sensor (ex: Relay(MyCustomName.relay1)=RELAYLO1-123456.relay1)

lightsensor→get_advertisedValue()
lightsensor→advertisedValue()
lightsensor.get_advertisedValue()lightsensor→get_advertisedValue()[lightsensor advertisedValue]lightsensor.get_advertisedValue()lightsensor.get_advertisedValue()lightsensor.get_advertisedValue()lightsensor.get_advertisedValue()lightsensor.get_advertisedValue()lightsensor.get_advertisedValue()lightsensor→get_advertisedValue()lightsensor.get_advertisedValue()YLightSensor get_advertisedValue

Returns the current value of the light sensor (no more than 6 characters).

js
function get_advertisedValue()
cpp
string get_advertisedValue()
m
-(NSString*) advertisedValue
pas
function get_advertisedValue(): string
vb
function get_advertisedValue() As String
cs
string get_advertisedValue()
java
String get_advertisedValue()
uwp
async Task<string> get_advertisedValue()
py
def get_advertisedValue()
php
function get_advertisedValue()
es
function get_advertisedValue()
cmd
YLightSensor target get_advertisedValue

Returns :

a string corresponding to the current value of the light sensor (no more than 6 characters).

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_ADVERTISEDVALUE_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_currentRawValue()
lightsensor→currentRawValue()
lightsensor.get_currentRawValue()lightsensor→get_currentRawValue()[lightsensor currentRawValue]lightsensor.get_currentRawValue()lightsensor.get_currentRawValue()lightsensor.get_currentRawValue()lightsensor.get_currentRawValue()lightsensor.get_currentRawValue()lightsensor.get_currentRawValue()lightsensor→get_currentRawValue()lightsensor.get_currentRawValue()YLightSensor get_currentRawValue

Returns the uncalibrated, unrounded raw value returned by the sensor, in the specified unit, as a floating point number.

js
function get_currentRawValue()
cpp
double get_currentRawValue()
m
-(double) currentRawValue
pas
function get_currentRawValue(): double
vb
function get_currentRawValue() As Double
cs
double get_currentRawValue()
java
double get_currentRawValue()
uwp
async Task<double> get_currentRawValue()
py
def get_currentRawValue()
php
function get_currentRawValue()
es
function get_currentRawValue()
cmd
YLightSensor target get_currentRawValue

Returns :

a floating point number corresponding to the uncalibrated, unrounded raw value returned by the sensor, in the specified unit, as a floating point number

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_CURRENTRAWVALUE_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_currentValue()
lightsensor→currentValue()
lightsensor.get_currentValue()lightsensor→get_currentValue()[lightsensor currentValue]lightsensor.get_currentValue()lightsensor.get_currentValue()lightsensor.get_currentValue()lightsensor.get_currentValue()lightsensor.get_currentValue()lightsensor.get_currentValue()lightsensor→get_currentValue()lightsensor.get_currentValue()YLightSensor get_currentValue

Returns the current value of the ambient light, in the specified unit, as a floating point number.

js
function get_currentValue()
cpp
double get_currentValue()
m
-(double) currentValue
pas
function get_currentValue(): double
vb
function get_currentValue() As Double
cs
double get_currentValue()
java
double get_currentValue()
uwp
async Task<double> get_currentValue()
py
def get_currentValue()
php
function get_currentValue()
es
function get_currentValue()
cmd
YLightSensor target get_currentValue

Returns :

a floating point number corresponding to the current value of the ambient light, in the specified unit, as a floating point number

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_CURRENTVALUE_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_dataLogger()
lightsensor→dataLogger()
lightsensor.get_dataLogger()lightsensor→get_dataLogger()[lightsensor dataLogger]lightsensor.get_dataLogger()lightsensor.get_dataLogger()lightsensor.get_dataLogger()lightsensor.get_dataLogger()lightsensor.get_dataLogger()lightsensor.get_dataLogger()lightsensor→get_dataLogger()lightsensor.get_dataLogger()

Returns the YDatalogger object of the device hosting the sensor.

js
function get_dataLogger()
cpp
YDataLogger* get_dataLogger()
m
-(YDataLogger*) dataLogger
pas
function get_dataLogger(): TYDataLogger
vb
function get_dataLogger() As YDataLogger
cs
YDataLogger get_dataLogger()
java
YDataLogger get_dataLogger()
uwp
async Task<YDataLogger> get_dataLogger()
py
def get_dataLogger()
php
function get_dataLogger()
es
function get_dataLogger()

This method returns an object of class YDatalogger that can control global parameters of the data logger. The returned object should not be freed.

Returns :

an YDataLogger object or null on error.

lightsensor→get_errorMessage()
lightsensor→errorMessage()
lightsensor.get_errorMessage()lightsensor→get_errorMessage()[lightsensor errorMessage]lightsensor.get_errorMessage()lightsensor.get_errorMessage()lightsensor.get_errorMessage()lightsensor.get_errorMessage()lightsensor.get_errorMessage()lightsensor→get_errorMessage()lightsensor.get_errorMessage()

Returns the error message of the latest error with the light sensor.

js
function get_errorMessage()
cpp
string get_errorMessage()
m
-(NSString*) errorMessage
pas
function get_errorMessage(): string
vb
function get_errorMessage() As String
cs
string get_errorMessage()
java
String get_errorMessage()
py
def get_errorMessage()
php
function get_errorMessage()
es
function get_errorMessage()

This method is mostly useful when using the Yoctopuce library with exceptions disabled.

Returns :

a string corresponding to the latest error message that occured while using the light sensor object

lightsensor→get_errorType()
lightsensor→errorType()
lightsensor.get_errorType()lightsensor→get_errorType()lightsensor.get_errorType()lightsensor.get_errorType()lightsensor.get_errorType()lightsensor.get_errorType()lightsensor.get_errorType()lightsensor→get_errorType()lightsensor.get_errorType()

Returns the numerical error code of the latest error with the light sensor.

js
function get_errorType()
cpp
YRETCODE get_errorType()
pas
function get_errorType(): YRETCODE
vb
function get_errorType() As YRETCODE
cs
YRETCODE get_errorType()
java
int get_errorType()
py
def get_errorType()
php
function get_errorType()
es
function get_errorType()

This method is mostly useful when using the Yoctopuce library with exceptions disabled.

Returns :

a number corresponding to the code of the latest error that occurred while using the light sensor object

lightsensor→get_friendlyName()
lightsensor→friendlyName()
lightsensor.get_friendlyName()lightsensor→get_friendlyName()[lightsensor friendlyName]lightsensor.get_friendlyName()lightsensor.get_friendlyName()lightsensor.get_friendlyName()lightsensor→get_friendlyName()lightsensor.get_friendlyName()

Returns a global identifier of the light sensor in the format MODULE_NAME.FUNCTION_NAME.

js
function get_friendlyName()
cpp
string get_friendlyName()
m
-(NSString*) friendlyName
cs
string get_friendlyName()
java
String get_friendlyName()
py
def get_friendlyName()
php
function get_friendlyName()
es
function get_friendlyName()

The returned string uses the logical names of the module and of the light sensor if they are defined, otherwise the serial number of the module and the hardware identifier of the light sensor (for example: MyCustomName.relay1)

Returns :

a string that uniquely identifies the light sensor using logical names (ex: MyCustomName.relay1)

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_FRIENDLYNAME_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_functionDescriptor()
lightsensor→functionDescriptor()
lightsensor.get_functionDescriptor()lightsensor→get_functionDescriptor()[lightsensor functionDescriptor]lightsensor.get_functionDescriptor()lightsensor.get_functionDescriptor()lightsensor.get_functionDescriptor()lightsensor.get_functionDescriptor()lightsensor.get_functionDescriptor()lightsensor→get_functionDescriptor()lightsensor.get_functionDescriptor()

Returns a unique identifier of type YFUN_DESCR corresponding to the function.

js
function get_functionDescriptor()
cpp
YFUN_DESCR get_functionDescriptor()
m
-(YFUN_DESCR) functionDescriptor
pas
function get_functionDescriptor(): YFUN_DESCR
vb
function get_functionDescriptor() As YFUN_DESCR
cs
YFUN_DESCR get_functionDescriptor()
java
String get_functionDescriptor()
py
def get_functionDescriptor()
php
function get_functionDescriptor()
es
function get_functionDescriptor()

This identifier can be used to test if two instances of YFunction reference the same physical function on the same physical device.

Returns :

an identifier of type YFUN_DESCR.

If the function has never been contacted, the returned value is Y_FUNCTIONDESCRIPTOR_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_functionId()
lightsensor→functionId()
lightsensor.get_functionId()lightsensor→get_functionId()[lightsensor functionId]lightsensor.get_functionId()lightsensor.get_functionId()lightsensor.get_functionId()lightsensor.get_functionId()lightsensor→get_functionId()lightsensor.get_functionId()

Returns the hardware identifier of the light sensor, without reference to the module.

js
function get_functionId()
cpp
string get_functionId()
m
-(NSString*) functionId
vb
function get_functionId() As String
cs
string get_functionId()
java
String get_functionId()
py
def get_functionId()
php
function get_functionId()
es
function get_functionId()

For example relay1

Returns :

a string that identifies the light sensor (ex: relay1)

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_FUNCTIONID_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_hardwareId()
lightsensor→hardwareId()
lightsensor.get_hardwareId()lightsensor→get_hardwareId()[lightsensor hardwareId]lightsensor.get_hardwareId()lightsensor.get_hardwareId()lightsensor.get_hardwareId()lightsensor.get_hardwareId()lightsensor→get_hardwareId()lightsensor.get_hardwareId()

Returns the unique hardware identifier of the light sensor in the form SERIAL.FUNCTIONID.

js
function get_hardwareId()
cpp
string get_hardwareId()
m
-(NSString*) hardwareId
vb
function get_hardwareId() As String
cs
string get_hardwareId()
java
String get_hardwareId()
py
def get_hardwareId()
php
function get_hardwareId()
es
function get_hardwareId()

The unique hardware identifier is composed of the device serial number and of the hardware identifier of the light sensor (for example RELAYLO1-123456.relay1).

Returns :

a string that uniquely identifies the light sensor (ex: RELAYLO1-123456.relay1)

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_HARDWAREID_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_highestValue()
lightsensor→highestValue()
lightsensor.get_highestValue()lightsensor→get_highestValue()[lightsensor highestValue]lightsensor.get_highestValue()lightsensor.get_highestValue()lightsensor.get_highestValue()lightsensor.get_highestValue()lightsensor.get_highestValue()lightsensor.get_highestValue()lightsensor→get_highestValue()lightsensor.get_highestValue()YLightSensor get_highestValue

Returns the maximal value observed for the ambient light since the device was started.

js
function get_highestValue()
cpp
double get_highestValue()
m
-(double) highestValue
pas
function get_highestValue(): double
vb
function get_highestValue() As Double
cs
double get_highestValue()
java
double get_highestValue()
uwp
async Task<double> get_highestValue()
py
def get_highestValue()
php
function get_highestValue()
es
function get_highestValue()
cmd
YLightSensor target get_highestValue

Returns :

a floating point number corresponding to the maximal value observed for the ambient light since the device was started

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_HIGHESTVALUE_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_logFrequency()
lightsensor→logFrequency()
lightsensor.get_logFrequency()lightsensor→get_logFrequency()[lightsensor logFrequency]lightsensor.get_logFrequency()lightsensor.get_logFrequency()lightsensor.get_logFrequency()lightsensor.get_logFrequency()lightsensor.get_logFrequency()lightsensor.get_logFrequency()lightsensor→get_logFrequency()lightsensor.get_logFrequency()YLightSensor get_logFrequency

Returns the datalogger recording frequency for this function, or "OFF" when measures are not stored in the data logger flash memory.

js
function get_logFrequency()
cpp
string get_logFrequency()
m
-(NSString*) logFrequency
pas
function get_logFrequency(): string
vb
function get_logFrequency() As String
cs
string get_logFrequency()
java
String get_logFrequency()
uwp
async Task<string> get_logFrequency()
py
def get_logFrequency()
php
function get_logFrequency()
es
function get_logFrequency()
cmd
YLightSensor target get_logFrequency

Returns :

a string corresponding to the datalogger recording frequency for this function, or "OFF" when measures are not stored in the data logger flash memory

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_LOGFREQUENCY_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_logicalName()
lightsensor→logicalName()
lightsensor.get_logicalName()lightsensor→get_logicalName()[lightsensor logicalName]lightsensor.get_logicalName()lightsensor.get_logicalName()lightsensor.get_logicalName()lightsensor.get_logicalName()lightsensor.get_logicalName()lightsensor.get_logicalName()lightsensor→get_logicalName()lightsensor.get_logicalName()YLightSensor get_logicalName

Returns the logical name of the light sensor.

js
function get_logicalName()
cpp
string get_logicalName()
m
-(NSString*) logicalName
pas
function get_logicalName(): string
vb
function get_logicalName() As String
cs
string get_logicalName()
java
String get_logicalName()
uwp
async Task<string> get_logicalName()
py
def get_logicalName()
php
function get_logicalName()
es
function get_logicalName()
cmd
YLightSensor target get_logicalName

Returns :

a string corresponding to the logical name of the light sensor.

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_LOGICALNAME_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_lowestValue()
lightsensor→lowestValue()
lightsensor.get_lowestValue()lightsensor→get_lowestValue()[lightsensor lowestValue]lightsensor.get_lowestValue()lightsensor.get_lowestValue()lightsensor.get_lowestValue()lightsensor.get_lowestValue()lightsensor.get_lowestValue()lightsensor.get_lowestValue()lightsensor→get_lowestValue()lightsensor.get_lowestValue()YLightSensor get_lowestValue

Returns the minimal value observed for the ambient light since the device was started.

js
function get_lowestValue()
cpp
double get_lowestValue()
m
-(double) lowestValue
pas
function get_lowestValue(): double
vb
function get_lowestValue() As Double
cs
double get_lowestValue()
java
double get_lowestValue()
uwp
async Task<double> get_lowestValue()
py
def get_lowestValue()
php
function get_lowestValue()
es
function get_lowestValue()
cmd
YLightSensor target get_lowestValue

Returns :

a floating point number corresponding to the minimal value observed for the ambient light since the device was started

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_LOWESTVALUE_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_measureType()
lightsensor→measureType()
lightsensor.get_measureType()lightsensor→get_measureType()[lightsensor measureType]lightsensor.get_measureType()lightsensor.get_measureType()lightsensor.get_measureType()lightsensor.get_measureType()lightsensor.get_measureType()lightsensor.get_measureType()lightsensor→get_measureType()lightsensor.get_measureType()YLightSensor get_measureType

Returns the type of light measure.

js
function get_measureType()
cpp
Y_MEASURETYPE_enum get_measureType()
m
-(Y_MEASURETYPE_enum) measureType
pas
function get_measureType(): Integer
vb
function get_measureType() As Integer
cs
int get_measureType()
java
int get_measureType()
uwp
async Task<int> get_measureType()
py
def get_measureType()
php
function get_measureType()
es
function get_measureType()
cmd
YLightSensor target get_measureType

Returns :

a value among Y_MEASURETYPE_HUMAN_EYE, Y_MEASURETYPE_WIDE_SPECTRUM, Y_MEASURETYPE_INFRARED, Y_MEASURETYPE_HIGH_RATE and Y_MEASURETYPE_HIGH_ENERGY corresponding to the type of light measure

On failure, throws an exception or returns Y_MEASURETYPE_INVALID.

lightsensor→get_module()
lightsensor→module()
lightsensor.get_module()lightsensor→get_module()[lightsensor module]lightsensor.get_module()lightsensor.get_module()lightsensor.get_module()lightsensor.get_module()lightsensor.get_module()lightsensor→get_module()lightsensor.get_module()

Gets the YModule object for the device on which the function is located.

js
function get_module()
cpp
YModule * get_module()
m
-(YModule*) module
pas
function get_module(): TYModule
vb
function get_module() As YModule
cs
YModule get_module()
java
YModule get_module()
py
def get_module()
php